Neuromodulation: A More Comprehensive Concept Beyond Deep Brain Stimulation.

Neuromodulation: a more comprehensive concept beyond deep brain stimulation.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Int Rev Neurobiol. 2012; 107: 1-3
Hamani C, Moro E

As currently understood, neuromodulation comprises not only electrical and magnetic stimulation but also chemical and genetic manipulations. The fact that adverse events induced by some of these treatments are largely reversible has sparked great interest in the development of new applications and targets for neuromodulatory treatments. As the number of indications and studies increases, so does research in associated fields. This chapter provides a brief introduction and discusses the overall contents of this volume of the International Review of Neurobiology.
HubMed – addiction


From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: physiological and behavioral effects related to use, abuse, and addiction.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012 Nov 30;
Hassan Z, Muzaimi M, Navaratnam V, Yusoff NH, Suhaimi FW, Vadivelu R, Vicknasingam BK, Amato D, von Hörsten S, Ismail NI, Jayabalan N, Hazim AI, Mansor SM, Müller CP

Kratom (or Ketum) is a psychoactive plant preparation used in Southeast Asia. It is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Kratom as well as its main alkaloid, mitragynine, currently spreads around the world. Thus, addiction potential and adverse health consequences are becoming an important issue for health authorities. Here we reviewed the available evidence and identified future research needs. It was found that mitragynine and M. speciosa preparations are systematically consumed with rather well defined instrumentalization goals, e.g. to enhance tolerance for hard work or as a substitute in the self-treatment of opiate addiction. There is also evidence from experimental animal models supporting analgesic, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory as well as strong anorectic effects. In humans, regular consumption may escalate, lead to tolerance and may yield aversive withdrawal effects. Mitragynine and its derivatives actions in the central nervous system involve ?-opioid receptors, neuronal Ca(2+) channels and descending monoaminergic projections. Altogether, available data currently suggest both, a therapeutic as well as an abuse potential.
HubMed – addiction


Gender differences and demographic influences in perceived concern for driver safety and support for impaired driving countermeasures.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Safety Res. 2012 Dec; 43(5-6): 405-11
Butters J, Mann RE, Wickens CM, Boase P

Driving safety, impaired driving, and legislation to address these concerns remain important issues. It is imperative countermeasures be targeted toward the most appropriate groups. This paper explores the potential relationship between gender and driving attitudes toward safety issues and impaired-driving countermeasures.The data are from the 2007 Impaired Driving Survey commissioned by Transport Canada and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) Canada. The survey is a, stratified by region, telephone survey of 1,514 Canadian drivers 18years of age and older with a valid driver’s license who had driven within the past 30days.The findings illustrate a consistent impact of gender on these issues. Other variables were also identified as relevant factors although less consistently. Current findings suggest that strategies for building support for interventions, or for changing risk perception/concern for risky driving behaviors should be tailored by gender to maximize the potential for behavior change.This information may assist program and policy developers through the identification of more or less receptive target groups. Future research directions are also presented.
HubMed – addiction


Related Addiction Rehab Information…