Neurofeedback-Mediated Self-Regulation of the Dopaminergic Midbrain.

Neurofeedback-mediated self-regulation of the dopaminergic midbrain.

Neuroimage. 2013 Mar 1;
Sulzer J, Sitaram R, Blefari ML, Kollias S, Birbaumer N, Stephan KE, Luft A, Gassert R

The dopaminergic system is involved in reward encoding and reinforcement learning. Dopaminergic neurons from this system in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area complex (SN/VTA) fire in response to unexpected reinforcing cues. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals can gain voluntary control of SN/VTA activity, thereby potentially enhancing dopamine release to target brain regions. Neurofeedback and mental imagery were used to self-regulate the SN/VTA. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) provided abstract visual feedback of the SN/VTA activity while the subject imagined rewarding scenes. Skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded as a measure of emotional arousal. To examine the effect of neurofeedback, subjects were assigned to either receiving feedback directly proportional (n =15, veridical feedback) or inversely proportional (n=17, inverted feedback) to SN/VTA activity. Both groups of subjects were able to up-regulate SN/VTA activity initially without feedback. Veridical feedback improved the ability to up-regulate SN/VTA compared to baseline while inverted feedback did not. Additional dopaminergic regions were activated in both groups. The ability to self-regulate SN/VTA was differentially correlated with SCR depending on the group, suggesting an association between emotional arousal and neurofeedback performance. These findings indicate that SN/VTA can be voluntarily activated by imagery and voluntary activation is further enhanced by neurofeedback. The findings may lead the way towards a non-invasive strategy for endogenous control of dopamine. HubMed – rehab


Common drug interactions following traumatic brain injury.

J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2013 Mar; 28(2): 151-4
Levine JM

HubMed – rehab


Analysis of the resulto of survey on trauma systems: the neglected disease of the modern society.

Cir Esp. 2013 Mar 1;
Costa Navarro D, Jiménez Fuertes M, Ceballos Esparragón J, Montón Condón S, Jover Navalón JM, Turégano Fuentes F, Navarro Soto S

BACKGROUND: Trauma injuries are the main cause of death in the world. The aim of this study is to determine how trauma patients are treated in Spain at an organizational level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was prepared consisting of 14 questions regarding aspects of the trauma care organization and trauma education. It was posted on the web site of the Spanish College of Surgeons and all members were encouraged to participate. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety questionnaires from 110 different hospitals were received. More than two-thirds (67.3%) of the centers had protocols for treating trauma patients, with 81% of them based on ATLS guidelines. Almost three-quarters (72.6%) of the doctors had completed the ATLS course, and 38.9% the DSTC course. There was a specific education program in trauma in 24.5% of the centers, and 35.5% had a Trauma Committee. There was a rehabilitation program in 24.5% of the centers. CONCLUSION: Very few of the participating centers would fulfill the requirements of the American College of Surgeons accreditation for trauma centers. Trauma care in Spain has improved a lot in the recent years, but there is still a lot to do to reach the level of that in the United States of America. HubMed – rehab