[Neurobiology of Behavioral Addictions.]

[Neurobiology of behavioral addictions.]

Nervenarzt. 2013 Apr 28;
Kiefer F, Fauth-Bühler M, Heinz A, Mann K

Reward learning represents a crucial mechanism in the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behavior. The underlying neurobiological foundations and associated neurobiological pathways are identified in this review and similarities between substance abuse and behavioral addictions will be discussed. In the second section current neuroimaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of pathological gambling and computer and internet addiction are discussed. The main focuses are on changes in neurocognitive processes, such as cue reactivity, reward and punishment processing and behavioral control. HubMed – addiction


Cocaine modulation of fronto-striatal expression of zif268, D2 and 5-HT2c receptors in high and low impulsive rats.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 May 1;
Besson M, Pelloux Y, Dilleen R, Theobald DE, Lyon A, Belin-Rauscent A, Robbins TW, Dalley JW, Everitt BJ, Belin D

Impulsivity shares high co-morbidity with substance abuse in humans and high impulsivity in rats has been identified as a predictive factor of cocaine addiction-like behaviors. Despite the evidence that high impulsivity is associated with altered function of corticostriatal networks, the specific neural substrates underlying the increased vulnerability of impulsive individuals to develop cocaine addiction remain unknown. We therefore investigated specific neural correlates of high impulsivity within the corticostriatal circuitry and determined how they interact with a protracted history of cocaine self-administration. We used in situ hybridization to map brain expression of two major genes implicated in impulsivity, encoding dopamine D2 (DA D2R) and 5-HT2c (5-HT2cR) receptors, and an immediate early gene associated with neuronal plasticity, zif268, in groups of rats selected for high and low impulsivity (HI and LI) on a 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) immediately after 5-CSRTT training, and following, ten or fifty days of cocaine self-administration. HI rats exhibited decreased DA D2R mRNA in the mesolimbic pathway, and increased 5-HT2cR mRNA in the orbitofrontal cortex compared with LI rats. HI rats also showed decreased zif268 mRNA in the ventral and dorsomedial striatum. Cocaine exposure decreased striatal D2R mRNA in both HI and LI rats. It decreased 5-HT2cR mRNA differentially in striatal and prefrontal areas between HI and LI rats, and selectively decreased zif268 mRNA in the orbitofrontal and infralimbic cortices of HI animals. These findings implicate novel markers underlying the vulnerability of impulsive rats to cocaine addiction that localise to the orbitofrontal cortex, infralimbic cortex, and striatum.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 1 May 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.95. HubMed – addiction


Molecules and circuits involved in nicotine addiction: the many faces of smoking.

Neuropharmacology. 2013 Apr 27;
Picciotto MR, Mineur YS

Tobacco smoking in humans is one of the most persistent and widespread addictions and is driven by nicotine in tobacco smoke. Over the last several decades, understanding of the molecular and cellular basis for nicotine addiction has increased tremendously as a result of pharmacological, molecular genetic, electrophysiological and behavioral studies of nicotine reinforcement. Studies of the biological basis for nicotine reinforcement has helped in the design of new treatments for smoking cessation such as varenicline; however, smokers report that they smoke for many reasons, including the ability to control symptoms of anxiety and depression or the desire to control appetite. Further, developmental exposure to tobacco smoke increases the likelihood of adult smoking. Here we review what is known about the molecular and circuit basis for a number of behaviors related to tobacco smoking. Leveraging the knowledge from studies of different behaviors mediated by nicotine receptors in multiple brain circuits could provide points of convergence that will inform future therapeutic development for smoking cessation. HubMed – addiction



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