Neurobiological Basis of Dyskinetic Effects Induced by Antipsychotics: The Contribution of Animal Models.

Neurobiological basis of dyskinetic effects induced by antipsychotics: the contribution of animal models.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Curr Med Chem. 2012 Nov 13;
Creed MC, Nobrega JN

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder characterized by abnormal involuntary facial movements induced by chronic therapy with classical antipsychotic medications. Currently, there is no satisfactory pharmacotherapy for TD, which represents a major limitation to therapy with classical antipsychotics. In order to develop or optimize therapies for TD, and to develop new APDs with lower indices of motor side effects, the pathology underlying TD must first be understood. The use of animal models has been used to further this objective. Here, we review different preparations that have been used to model TD and discuss the contribution of neuroimaging studies conducted in these models. Studies in animal models have lead to several hypotheses of TD pathology, although none has yet emerged as the ultimate underlying cause of this syndrome. We discuss alterations in functional indices, neuron and synapse morphology and changes in specific neurotransmitter systems that have been described in animal models of TD, and outline how these findings have contributed to our understanding of antipsychotic-induced dyskinesias. We conclude that several non-mutually exclusive theories of TD are supported by animal studies, including increases in oxidative stress leading to structural and functional changes in specific neurotransmitter systems. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying TD neuropathology partly through the use of animal models will lead to the development of APDs with superior side effect profiles or more effective therapies for TD.
HubMed – addiction


The development of antibody-based immunotherapy for methamphetamine abuse: immunization, and virus-mediated gene transfer approaches.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Curr Gene Ther. 2012 Nov 15;
Chen YH, Chen CH

Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant that has been seriously abused worldwide, and currently there are no approved medications for the treatment of its abuse. Conventional treatments for drug addiction mainly seek to use small molecule agonists or antagonists to target the drug receptors in the brain, but unfortunately it is difficult to find a similar small molecule for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Alternatively, anti-methamphetamine antibodies can sequester the drug in the bloodstream and reduce the amount of drug available to the central nervous system, acting as peripheral pharmacokinetic antagonists. This review describes the development of antibody-based immunotherapies, classified into active and passive immunizations, for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, an alternative therapeutic approach, using a recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer technique to achieve in vivo expression of characterized anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibodies, is proposed in this article.
HubMed – addiction


What predicts retention on an in-prison drug treatment program?

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Span J Psychol. 2012 Nov; 15(3): 1349-60
Casares-López MJ, González-Menéndez A, Fernández P, Secades-Villa R, Fernández-Hermida JR

The effectiveness of treatments for substance use disorders is strongly related to retention, since early dropout from treatment is associated with greater likelihood of relapse. The purpose of this prospective, ex post facto study is to analyze the effect of individual variables on retention in a treatment program carried out in a prison drug-free unit. The Addiction Severity Index, motivation and personality profile of fifty inmates were assessed on entry to the prison. Inmates were monitored for a year to identify length of stay. Results: Motivation variables at intake play a vital role in the prediction of retention in a prison drug-free unit; scores on the Aggressive-Sadistic and Narcissistic scales are also strong predictors of treatment retention.
HubMed – addiction



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