Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 as a Potential New Element of Sleep Regulation in Rats.

Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 as a Potential New Element of Sleep Regulation in Rats.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e59809
Vas S, Adori C, Könczöl K, Kátai Z, Pap D, Papp RS, Bagdy G, Palkovits M, Tóth ZE

Millions suffer from sleep disorders that often accompany severe illnesses such as major depression; a leading psychiatric disorder characterized by appetite and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) abnormalities. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and nesfatin-1/NUCB2 (nesfatin) are strongly co – expressed in the hypothalamus and are involved both in food intake regulation and depression. Since MCH was recognized earlier as a hypnogenic factor, we analyzed the potential role of nesfatin on vigilance.We subjected rats to a 72 h-long REMS deprivation using the classic flower pot method, followed by a 3 h-long ‘rebound sleep’. Nesfatin mRNA and protein expressions as well as neuronal activity (Fos) were measured by quantitative in situ hybridization technique, ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in ‘deprived’ and ‘rebound’ groups, relative to controls sacrificed at the same time. We also analyzed electroencephalogram of rats treated by intracerebroventricularly administered nesfatin-1, or saline.REMS deprivation downregulated the expression of nesfatin (mRNA and protein), however, enhanced REMS during ‘rebound’ reversed this to control levels. Additionally, increased transcriptional activity (Fos) was demonstrated in nesfatin neurons during ‘rebound’. Centrally administered nesfatin-1 at light on reduced REMS and intermediate stage of sleep, while increased passive wake for several hours and also caused a short-term increase in light slow wave sleep.The data designate nesfatin as a potential new factor in sleep regulation, which fact can also be relevant in the better understanding of the role of nesfatin in the pathomechanism of depression. HubMed – depression


Perceptions of survivorship care among South Asian female breast cancer survivors.

Curr Oncol. 2013 Apr; 20(2): e80-9
Singh-Carlson S, Nguyen SK, Wong F

To explore the perceptions of South Asian (sa) breast cancer survivors concerning their follow-up care, and to determine the optimal content and format of a survivorship care plan (scp) for this population, according to various life stages.A survey was mailed to 259 sa women with a diagnosis of nonmetastatic breast cancer who were 18-85 years of age, 3-60 months post-discharge, and not on active treatment. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were applied to the responses. The data were cross-tabulated by age: group A (<44 years), group B (45-54 years), group C (55-64 years), and group D (>64 years).We received 64 completed surveys. The compliance rate for adjuvant hormonal therapy was high (86.3%). Most of the respondents (n = 61, 95.4%) had visited their family doctor within several months (0.5-24 months) after discharge. Their main physical effects concern was fatigue, and anxiety concerning health was the main psychosocial impact. Groups A and B were more concerned about physical appearance, depression, and the impact of cancer on family members. Women in the older groups were concerned about family obligations and work issues. Several women (n = 9, 14.1%) described strain on their marriage and on their relationships with family and friends as significant issues. Slightly more than one third (n = 24, 37.5%) experienced a deepening of faith, and almost as many (n = 23, 35.9%) felt that their illness was something that was meant to happen.Many of the impacts of breast cancer treatment are shared by women of all ethnic backgrounds. Others-such as high levels of compliance, little reported strain on spousal and family relationships, and the importance of faith-reflect specific cultural variations. These universal and culture-specific themes should all be kept in mind when developing a scp tailored to sa women. The developmental life stage of a woman affects how she views the cancer diagnosis, especially with respect to family, reproduction, and work issues. HubMed – depression


Breast cancer survivorship and South Asian women: understanding about the follow-up care plan and perspectives and preferences for information post treatment.

Curr Oncol. 2013 Apr; 20(2): e63-79
Singh-Carlson S, Wong F, Martin L, Nguyen SK

As more treatment options become available and supportive care improves, a larger number of people will survive after treatment for breast cancer. In the present study, we explored the experiences and concerns of female South Asian (sa) breast cancer survivors (bcss) from various age groups after treatment to determine their understanding of follow-up care and to better understand their preferences for a survivorship care plan (scp).Patients were identified by name recognition from BC Cancer Agency records for sa patients who were 3-60 months post treatment, had no evidence of recurrence, and had been discharged from the cancer centre to follow-up. Three focus groups and eleven face-to-face semistructured interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, cross-checked for accuracy, and analyzed using thematic and content analysis. Participants were asked about their survivorship experiences and their preferences for the content and format of a scp.Fatigue, cognitive changes, fear of recurrence, and depression were the most universal effects after treatment. “Quiet acceptance” was the major theme unique to sa women, with a unique cross-influence between faith and acceptance. Emphasis on a generalized scp with individualized content echoed the wide variation in breast cancer impacts for sa women. Younger women preferred information on depression and peer support.For sa bcss, many of the psychological and physical impacts of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment may be experienced in common with bcss of other ethnic backgrounds, but the present study also suggests the presence of unique cultural nuances such as spiritual and language-specific support resource needs. The results provide direction for designing key content and format of scps, and information about elements of care that can be customized to individual patient needs. HubMed – depression


Psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse: the case of female students in jimma zone, South west ethiopia.

Ethiop J Health Sci. 2013 Mar; 23(1): 32-8
Haileye A

Arguably, the sexual abuse of children raises a number of important questions for researchers at different times. Thus, the present study was aimed to examine psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse.This cross-sectional survey study compared the degree of vulnerability to psychopathological variables among respondents with a history of sexual abuse and their unabused counter parts in Jimma Zone. To this end, 400 female students were selected from five high schools as the sample population using multi-stage sampling procedure. Data were gathered using Reynold’s Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), Adolescent Panic Anxiety Scale, and Posttraumatic stress disorder test. The collected data via self-administered questionnaire were analyzed through the two sample t-test statistical procedure.The study revealed a result of t=3.83 for depression, t=2.46 for panic episode, and t=4.23 for PTSD score, whereas, the critical value of all the three psychopathological variables showed t (52) =1.676 at P=0.05. Results illustrate the presence of statistically significant differences in the mean scores of the above mentioned psychopathologies between females with history of sexual abuse and females who were not victims of this sexual attack at df =52 and P=0.05.The findings of the present study indicate that history of childhood sexual abuse has adverse consequences on the future psychological wellbeing of females. Specifically, females with experience of sexual abuse were found to be more susceptible to develop depression, panic anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders than unabused females. Thus, parents, and teachers should give the necessary care and protection to female children. Primary bio-psychosocial care services need to be established in the school system, and both the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education should work together against sexual exploitation of female children. HubMed – depression


The association of maternal prenatal psychosocial stress with vascular function in the child at age 10-11 years: findings from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children.

Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013 Apr 4;
van Dijk AE, Dawe K, Deanfield J, Stronks K, Gemke RJ, Vrijkotte TG, Lawlor DA

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether (1) maternal psychosocial stress (depression/anxiety) during pregnancy is associated with offspring vascular function and (2) whether any association differs depending on the gestational timing of exposure to stress. We also investigated whether any association is likely to be due to intrauterine mechanisms by (3) comparing with the association of paternal stress with offspring vascular function and (4) examining whether any prenatal association is explained by maternal postnatal stress. METHODS AND RESULTS: Associations were examined in a UK birth cohort, with offspring outcomes (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, SBP and DBP, endothelial function assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD); arterial stiffness assessed by carotid to radial pulse wave velocity (PWV), brachial artery distensibility (DC), and brachial artery diameter (BD) assessed at age 10-11 years (n?=?4318). Maternal depressive symptoms and anxiety were assessed at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and 8 months postnatally. Paternal symptoms were assessed at week 19. With the exception of DBP and BD, there were no associations of maternal depressive symptoms with any of the vascular outcomes. Maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms were associated with lower offspring DBP and wider BD, though the latter attenuated to the null with adjustment for confounding factors. Paternal symptoms were not associated with offspring outcomes. Maternal postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with lower offspring SBP. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that maternal stress during pregnancy adversely affects offspring vascular function at age 10-12 years via intrauterine mechanisms. HubMed – depression