Natural Infection by Endoparasites Among Free-Living Wild Animals.

Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2013 Jun 17;
Holsback L, Cardoso MJ, Fagnani R, Patelli TH

The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus) and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani). Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira). Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments. HubMed – rehab


Effects of short-term isokinetic training with reciprocal knee extensors agonist and antagonist muscle actions: A controlled and randomized trial.

Rev Bras Fisioter. 2013 Apr; 17(2):
Cunha R, Carregaro RL, Martorelli A, Vieira A, Oliveira AB, Bottaro M

Previous studies have shown that preloading an antagonist muscle may increase the acute agonist neuromuscular performance. In addition, studies have suggested that very short-term resistance exercise (RE) programs may also be useful to increase strength and muscular performance.To evaluate the effects of three days of RE using a reciprocal action method on the muscular performance of healthy men and to compare these effects with those of a traditional RE group.Thirty-three men (21.1 ± 2.3 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) reciprocal (REC; knee flexion immediately followed by a knee extension exercise); 2) traditional (TRA; non-preload; a concentric knee extension exercise); and 3) control (CON; no exercise). The REC and TRA subjects performed four sets of 10 repetitions at 60º/s with one minute of rest. The pre- and post-RE tests included two sets of four maximal concentric repetitions at 60º/s and 180º/s. A 3×2 ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc was used to analyze the differences in peak torque (PT), rating of acceleration development (RAD) and time to peak torque (TIMEtorque).A significant PT increase was found for REC and TRA (p<0.05) at 60º/s and for REC at 180º/s (p<0.05). There was a decrease in the RAD for REC and TRA (p<0.05), and TIMEtorque showed a significant decrease for REC. The inter-group analysis revealed that REC is more effective than TRA for PT gains at both velocities (p<0.05).It is recommended that REC offers benefits for the clinical practice of professionals involved in neuromuscular rehabilitation. HubMed – rehab


Immediate effect of nonspecific mandibular mobilization on postural control in subjects with temporomandibular disorder: a single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Rev Bras Fisioter. 2013 Apr; 17(2):
Amaral AP, Politti F, Hage YE, Arruda EE, Amorin CF, Biasotto-Gonzalez DA

Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is considered multifactorial and is defined as a group of pain conditions characterized by functional stomatognathic system alterations, which may be affected by or related disrupted postural control.Assess the immediate effect of nonspecific mandibular mobilization (NMM) on the postural control of subjects diagnosed or not with TMD.A simple-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed involving 50 subjects of both genders assigned to two groups: the TMD group and the control group. TMD was diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). A stabilometric assessment was performed by testing subjects in a quiet stance on a dual force platform under two visual conditions (eyes open and eyes closed). The Center of Pressure (CoP)-related variables analyzed were displacement, amplitude, speed of anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) displacements and CoP sway area. The mean values of each variable were compared, considering the accepted significance value of p<0.05.A significant difference between the pre- and post-NMM means could be observed in subjects diagnosed with TMD under the closed-eyes visual condition. There was a statistically significant difference in the CoP sway area (p<0.03) in the ML displacement COPML (p<0.006) and ML amplitude COPML (p<0.01) and in the variable speed in the AP COPAP (p<0.03) and ML COPML (p<0.03) directions, simultaneously.These results indicate that nonspecific temporomandibular joint mobilization contributes to the immediate improvement of postural control in patients with TMD. HubMed – rehab


Beneficial Effects of Minocycline and Botulinum Toxin-Induced Constraint Physical Therapy Following Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Jun 18;
Lam TI, Bingham D, Chang TJ, Lee CC, Shi J, Wang D, Massa S, Swanson RA, Liu J

BACKGROUND: . Effective recovery from functional impairments caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) requires appropriate rehabilitation therapy. Multiple pathways are involved in secondary injury and recovery suggesting a role for multimodal approaches. OBJECTIVE: . Here, we examined the efficacy of the anti-inflammatory agent minocycline and botulinum toxin (botox)-induced limb constraint with structured physical therapy, delivered alone or in combination, after a severe TBI produced by a controlled cortical impact in rats. METHODS: . Minocycline was administered at 25 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks beginning 1 day after TBI or sham surgery. For constraint/physical therapy, botox-type A was injected into the nonaffected forearm muscle 1 day after injury and 2 weeks of physical therapy commenced at 5 days after injury. Functional evaluations were conducted 8 weeks after injury. RESULTS: . Minocycline, either as a monotherapy or as combination treatment with botox/physical therapy significantly reduced impairments of spatial learning and memory in the water maze test, whereas botox/physical therapy reduced forelimb motor asymmetry and improved manual dexterity in the cylinder and vermicelli handling tests, A synergistic effect between the 2 treatments was observed when rats performed tasks requiring dexterity. Inflammation was attenuated in the peri-contusion cortex and hippocampus in all TBI groups receiving mono or combination therapies, though there was no significant difference in lesion size among groups. CONCLUSION: . These data provide a rationale for incorporating anti-inflammatory treatment during rehabilitation therapy. HubMed – rehab