Nanoparticle Albumin Bound Paclitaxel in the Treatment of Human Cancer: Nanodelivery Reaches Prime-Time?

Nanoparticle albumin bound Paclitaxel in the treatment of human cancer: nanodelivery reaches prime-time?

J Drug Deliv. 2013; 2013: 905091
Cucinotto I, Fiorillo L, Gualtieri S, Arbitrio M, Ciliberto D, Staropoli N, Grimaldi A, Luce A, Tassone P, Caraglia M, Tagliaferri P

Nanoparticle albumin bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) represents the first nanotechnology-based drug in cancer treatment. We discuss the development of this innovative compound and report the recent changing-practice results in breast and pancreatic cancer. A ground-breaking finding is the demonstration that nab-paclitaxel can not only enhance the activity and reduce the toxicity of chromophore-diluted compound, but also exert activity in diseases considered refractory to taxane-based treatment. This is the first clinical demonstration of major activity of nanotechnologically modified drugs in the treatment of human neoplasms. HubMed – drug


MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound as a New Method of Drug Delivery.

J Drug Deliv. 2013; 2013: 616197
Thanou M, Gedroyc W

Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery under the guidance of an imaging modality can improve drug disposition and achieve site-specific drug delivery. The term focal drug delivery has been introduced to describe the focal targeting of drugs in tissues with the help of imaging and focused ultrasound. Focal drug delivery aims to improve the therapeutic profile of drugs by improving their specificity and their permeation in defined areas. Focused-ultrasound- (FUS-) mediated drug delivery has been applied with various molecules to improve their local distribution in tissues. FUS is applied with the aid of microbubbles to enhance the permeability of bioactive molecules across BBB and improve drug distribution in the brain. Recently, FUS has been utilised in combination with MRI-labelled liposomes that respond to temperature increase. This strategy aims to “activate” nanoparticles to release their cargo locally when triggered by hyperthermia induced by FUS. MRI-guided FUS drug delivery provides the opportunity to improve drug bioavailability locally and therefore improve the therapeutic profiles of drugs. This drug delivery strategy can be directly translated to clinic as MRg FUS is a promising clinically therapeutic approach. However, more basic research is required to understand the physiological mechanism of FUS-enhanced drug delivery. HubMed – drug


Ipilimumab: A First-in-Class T-Cell Potentiator for Metastatic Melanoma.

J Skin Cancer. 2013; 2013: 423829
Chmielowski B

Ipilimumab, a fully human anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 monoclonal antibody that potentiates antitumor T-cell responses, has demonstrated improved survival in previously treated and treatment-naïve patients with unresectable stage III/IV melanoma. Survival benefit has also been shown in diverse patient populations, including those with brain metastases. In 2011, ipilimumab (3?mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for unresectable or metastatic melanoma. Ipilimumab can induce novel response patterns for which immune-related response criteria have been proposed. irAEs are common but are usually low grade; higher grades can be severe and life-threatening. irAEs are usually manageable using established guidelines emphasizing vigilance and prompt intervention. This agent provides an additional therapeutic option in metastatic melanoma, and guidelines for management of adverse events facilitate clinical implementation of this new agent. HubMed – drug


Diabetic Neuropathy and Oxidative Stress: Therapeutic Perspectives.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013; 2013: 168039
Hosseini A, Abdollahi M

Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a widespread disabling disorder comprising peripheral nerves’ damage. DN develops on a background of hyperglycemia and an entangled metabolic imbalance, mainly oxidative stress. The majority of related pathways like polyol, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, hexosamine, and protein kinase c all originated from initial oxidative stress. To date, no absolute cure for DN has been defined; although some drugs are conventionally used, much more can be found if all pathophysiological links with oxidative stress would be taken into account. In this paper, although current therapies for DN have been reviewed, we have mainly focused on the links between DN and oxidative stress and therapies on the horizon, such as inhibitors of protein kinase C, aldose reductase, and advanced glycation. With reference to oxidative stress and the related pathways, the following new drugs are under study such as taurine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitor (ruboxistaurin), aldose reductase inhibitors (fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat), advanced glycation end product inhibitors (benfotiamine, aspirin, aminoguanidine), the hexosamine pathway inhibitor (benfotiamine), inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (nicotinamide), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril). The development of modern drugs to treat DN is a real challenge and needs intensive long-term comparative trials. HubMed – drug