Multidrug-Resistance and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Production in Uropathogenic E. Coli Which Were Isolated From Hospitalized Patients in Kolkata, India.

Multidrug-Resistance and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Production in Uropathogenic E. Coli which were Isolated from Hospitalized Patients in Kolkata, India.

J Clin Diagn Res. 2013 Mar; 7(3): 449-53
Mukherjee M, Basu S, Mukherjee SK, Majumder M

Background and Objective: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are mostly caused by Escherichia coli. The appropriate therapy demands a current knowledge on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern amongst these pathogens, as an inappropriate use of antibiotics may lead to complications and treatment failure. The UTIs which are caused by multidrug resistant Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria further pose a severe problem, as the treatment options are limited. The aim of this study was to identify the pattern of multi drug resistance amongst the uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates which were obtained from hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Forty UPEC were isolated from 200 urine samples of hospitalized patients who were clinically suspected for UTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility screening was performed by using 16 antibiotics, by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion technique. The isolates which were resistant to the third generation cephalosporins were subjected to the ESBL confirmatory test by using drug and drug-inhibitor combination disks by following the CLSI guidelines. Results: All the 40 isolates except three were multidrug resistant. They showed the highest sensitivities for nitrofurantoin (72.5%) and amikacin (70%). A high level of resistance was observed against ampicillin (97.5%), nalidixic acid and cefelexin (95%), amoxicillin (92.5%), cotrimoxazole (82.5%) and ciprofloxacin (80%) respectively. Thirty different antibiotic resistance patterns were observed against the different antibiotics. Twenty-eight out of the 40 isolates were resistant to the third generation cephalosporins. However, the phenotypic test for the ESBL confirmation indicated that eighteen out of the twenty-eight isolates were ESBL producers and that eleven different drug resistance patterns were observed amongst them. Conclusions: Therefore, this study accounts for the varied multidrug resistance pattern amongst the uropathogenic E. coli which were isolated from hospitalized patients in Kolkata, an eastern region of India. Nitrofurantoin and amikacin should be assigned as potent drugs to treat this infection in this region of the country. These varied resistance patterns present major therapeutic and infection control challenges and they suggest a heterogeneous population of the uropathogenic E. coli isolates which circulate in this sector of India. HubMed – drug


What is the standard approach to assessment of an unprovoked seizure in an adult?: HONG KONG.

Neurol Clin Pract. 2012 Dec; 2(4): 299-300
Kwan P

Since Hong Kong is highly urbanized and acute public hospitals have been established across the city, most patients with unprovoked seizures not already receiving antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy, particularly convulsive seizures, will be admitted as emergency for assessment. A thorough history is taken from the patient and any witnesses to the seizure. This includes the circumstance of the seizures, detailed symptoms and signs experienced by the patient and witnessed by others before, during, and after the seizure, any potential precipitating factors, history of previous seizures (that the patient might have overlooked), and history of previous brain insults that might have increased the risk of epilepsy later in life, including gestational and birth history, history of childhood febrile seizure, significant head trauma, any family history of epilepsy or seizures, comorbidities, current medications, drug and alcohol abuse, and social history including employment, driving, and living circumstances. A detailed physical and neurologic examination is performed. HubMed – drug


Mechanical thrombectomy devices for treatment of stroke.

Neurol Clin Pract. 2012 Sep; 2(3): 231-235
Raychev R, Saver JL

Mechanical thrombectomy devices comprise a wide array of endovascular tools cleared for removing thrombi from the neurovasculature in acute ischemic stroke patients. In the United States, 3 classes of mechanical thrombectomy devices have been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration: coil retrievers in 2004, aspiration devices in 2008, and stent retrievers in 2012. Available evidence and fundamental physiologic principles suggest that mechanical thrombectomy is appropriate for patients with large, proximal intracranial artery occlusions due to emboli of cardiac or arterial origin and is most effective when performed as soon as feasible after onset in patients known to still be harboring salvageable penumbral tissue. This review summarizes the mechanism of action of these devices, clinical trial results for efficacy and safety, and clinical use. HubMed – drug


Non-adherence of new pulmonary tuberculosis patients to anti-tuberculosis treatment.

Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013 Jan; 3(1): 67-74
Kulkarni P, Akarte S, Mankeshwar R, Bhawalkar J, Banerjee A, Kulkarni A

Non-adherence to anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment adversely affects treatment success rate. It increases disease morbidity and mortality. Also, it contributes significantly to the development of drug resistance.To identify risk factors for non-adherence to anti-TB treatment by new pulmonary TB patients.It is a prospective cohort study at 21 TB treatment centres in E ward of Mumbai Municipal Corporation. All sputum smear positive new pulmonary TB patients initiated on treatment regimen of short course chemotherapy fro 1(st) January to 30(th) June of a calendar year were enrolled and followed up till any final outcome as per revised national TB control program. Non-adherence was defined as interruption of anti-TB treatment for ? 1 month. The factors were identified by univariate and logistic regression analysis.We studied 156 newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients. Out of these 78 (50%) were non-adherent to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT). Independent risk factors for non-adherence were identified as male gender (P = 0.035) and lack of knowledge of importance of regular treatment (P = 0.001). Being female sex worker (FSW) was also an absolute risk factor for non-adherence.There is immense need for continuous, effective and reinforcing health education to the patient and his family. Special groups like males in the age group of 15-49 years, patients who do not have any family support like migrants, FSW need special attention to ensure adherence to ATT. HubMed – drug