Mortality and Potential Years of Life Lost Attributable to Alcohol Consumption by Race and Sex in the United States in 2005.

Mortality and potential years of life lost attributable to alcohol consumption by race and sex in the United States in 2005.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): e51923
Shield KD, Gmel G, Kehoe-Chan T, Dawson DA, Grant BF, Rehm J

Alcohol has been linked to health disparities between races in the US; however, race-specific alcohol-attributable mortality has never been estimated. The objective of this article is to estimate premature mortality attributable to alcohol in the US in 2005, differentiated by race, age and sex for people 15 to 64 years of age.Mortality attributable to alcohol was estimated based on alcohol-attributable fractions using indicators of exposure from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and risk relations from the Comparative Risk Assessment study. Consumption data were corrected for undercoverage (the observed underreporting of alcohol consumption when using survey as compared to sales data) using adult per capita consumption from WHO databases. Mortality data by cause of death were obtained from the US Department of Health and Human Services. For people 15 to 64 years of age in the US in 2005, alcohol was responsible for 55,974 deaths (46,461 for men; 9,513 for women) representing 9.0% of all deaths, and 1,288,700 PYLL (1,087,280 for men; 201,420 for women) representing 10.7% of all PYLL. Per 100,000 people, this represents 29 deaths (29 for White; 40 for Black; 82 for Native Americans; 6 for Asian/Pacific Islander) and 670 PYLL (673 for White; 808 for Black; 1,808 for Native American; 158 for Asian/Pacific Islander). Sensitivity analyses showed a lower but still substantial burden without adjusting for undercoverage.The burden of mortality attributable to alcohol in the US is unequal among people of different races and between men and women. Racial differences in alcohol consumption and the resulting harms explain in part the observed disparities in the premature mortality burden between races, suggesting the need for interventions for specific subgroups of the population such as Native Americans.
HubMed – addiction


[Gambling brain].

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Brain Nerve. 2013 Jan; 65(1): 77-83
Tsurumi K, Takahashi H

Abstract Pathological gambling (PG) is a chronic mental disorder, and patients cannot stop gambling despite severe negative consequences, such as huge debts, job loss, family break-up, and so on. It is said that PG is more prevalent in Japan than in Western countries. However, PG has not received much attention and has even been thought of as a lack of will to stop gambling rather than a mental disorder. PG has been classified under “Impulse-Control Disorders Not Elsewhere Classified,” along with compulsive stealing (kleptomania), starting fires (pyromania) and hair-pulling (trichotillomania), but accumulative evidence suggests that PG has many similarities with substance use disorders. Therefore, PG is being proposed to be classified under “Addiction and Related Disorders” in the DSM-5 draft. In this article, we review neuroimaging studies on PG on the basis of 4 dimensions – sensitivity to monetary reward and loss, craving and cue reactivity, impulsivity, and decision-making. In general, PG patients show reduced sensitivity to both monetary reward and loss, increased gamble-related cue reactivity, and increased impulsivity. In contrast, decision-making contains many elements, and hence, future neuroimaging studies on PG should focus on these individual elements. Some efforts have been made to combine molecular neuroimaging (positron emission tomography) with neuroeconomics to investigate the roles of neurotransmitters in altered decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding the molecular mechanism of extreme or impaired decision-making could contribute to the assessment and prevention of drug and gambling addictions and to the development of novel pharmacological therapies for these addictions.
HubMed – addiction


Central functions of the orexinergic system.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Neurosci Bull. 2013 Jan 8;
Zhang XY, Yu L, Zhuang QX, Zhu JN, Wang JJ

The neuropeptide orexin is synthesized by neurons exclusively located in the hypothalamus. However, these neurons send axons over virtually the entire brain and spinal cord and therefore constitute a unique central orexinergic system. it is well known that central orexin plays a crucial role in the regulation of various basic non-somatic and somatic physiological functions, including feeding, energy homeostasis, the sleep/wake cycle, reward, addiction, and neuroendocrine, as well as motor control. Moreover, the absence of orexin results in narcolepsy-cataplexy, a simultaneous somatic and non-somatic dysfunction. in this review, we summarize these central functions of the orexinergic system and associated diseases, and suggest that this system may hold a key position in somatic-non-somatic integration.
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Alcohol Consumption and Mortality in Russia since 2000: Are there any Changes Following the Alcohol Policy Changes Starting in 2006?

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Alcohol Alcohol. 2013 Jan 7;
Neufeld M, Rehm J

Aims: To elucidate the possible effects of Russian alcohol control policy on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality for the period 2000-2010. Methods: Narrative review including statistical analysis. Trends before and after 2006 are compared, 2006 being the date of implementation of the Russian government’s long-term strategy to reduce alcohol-related harms. Mortality data were taken from the World Health Organization (WHO) database ‘Health for All’. Data on recorded alcohol consumption were taken from the WHO, based on the Russian Statistical Service (Rosstat). For unrecorded consumption, the calculations of Alexandr Nemtsov were used. Russian public opinion surveys on drinking habits were utilized. Treatment data on alcohol dependence were obtained from the Moscow National Research Centre on Addictions. Information on alcohol policy was obtained from official reports. Results: Marked fluctuations in all-cause and alcohol-associated mortality in the working-age population were observed during the reviewed period. A decrease in total consumption and mortality was noted since the end of 2005, when the Russian government initially adopted the regulation of alcohol production and sale. The consumption changes were driven by decreases in recorded and unrecorded spirit consumption, only partly compensated for by increases in beer and wine consumption. Conclusions: Alcohol is a strong contributor to premature deaths in Russia, with both the volume and the pattern of consumption being detrimental to health. The regulations introduced since 2006 seem to have positive effects on both drinking behavior and health outcomes. However, there is an urgent need for further alcohol-control strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm.
HubMed – addiction



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