Monetary Reward Processing in Obese Individuals With and Without Binge Eating Disorder.

Monetary Reward Processing in Obese Individuals With and Without Binge Eating Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Feb 23;
Balodis IM, Kober H, Worhunsky PD, White MA, Stevens MC, Pearlson GD, Sinha R, Grilo CM, Potenza MN

BACKGROUND: An important step in obesity research involves identifying neurobiological underpinnings of nonfood reward processing unique to specific subgroups of obese individuals. METHODS: Nineteen obese individuals seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED) were compared with 19 non-BED obese individuals (OB) and 19 lean control subjects (LC) while performing a monetary reward/loss task that parses anticipatory and outcome components during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Differences in regional activation were investigated in BED, OB, and LC groups during reward/loss prospect, anticipation, and notification. RESULTS: Relative to the LC group, the OB group demonstrated increased ventral striatal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity during anticipatory phases. In contrast, the BED group relative to the OB group demonstrated diminished bilateral ventral striatal activity during anticipatory reward/loss processing. No differences were observed between the BED and LC groups in the ventral striatum. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity exists among obese individuals with respect to the neural correlates of reward/loss processing. Neural differences in separable groups with obesity suggest that multiple, varying interventions might be important in optimizing prevention and treatment strategies for obesity. HubMed – eating


Low rate of fistula formation after Sommerlad palatoplasty with or without lateral incisions: An analysis of risk factors for formation of fistulas after palatoplasty.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2013 Feb 22;
Becker M, Hansson E

The aim of palate repair is to restore normal eating and drinking function and normal speech development and still maintain undisturbed facial growth. The repair should be performed with a low frequency of complications. A number of factors are thought to contribute to the formation of fistulas after palatoplasty; they include patient factors and treatment issues. The aim of this study was to review all patients operated on with palatoplasties according to Sommerlad in our clinic, examine the fistula frequency and analyse risk factors for the development of fistulas after palate repair. During the study period, 175 patients were operated on with palatoplasties according to Sommerlad by the senior cleft surgeon. The group included 150 native patients and 25 adopted children. In the native population, seven patients developed fistulas and the fistula frequency was thus 5%. In the non-native group four patients developed fistulas, which gave a fistula frequency of 16%. In conclusion, the fistula frequency after Sommerlad repair of cleft palate is low in our material and few patients need fistula repair. The liberal usage of Langenbeck flaps might give a lower fistula rate. The most common place for fistulas is the junction of the soft and hard palate. No clear difference could be seen between different types of clefts. Syndromes and associated malformation seem to play a small role in the formation of fistulas. The fistula frequency in the non-native population is higher. A number of factors are different in the non-native population. HubMed – eating


Short communication: Estimation of genetic parameters for residual feed intake and feeding behavior traits in dairy heifers.

J Dairy Sci. 2013 Feb 22;
Lin Z, Macleod I, Pryce JE

Data from a 2-yr feeding trial of Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 842) were used to examine the heritability of feeding behavior traits and their relationships with residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency. Five traits were assessed: number of meals, feeding duration, dry matter intake (DMI), eating rate, and average meal size. For estimating genetic parameters, all traits were simultaneously fitted in a multivariate model with a genomic relationship matrix calculated from heifers’ high-density genotype data. All 5 traits were moderately heritable (0.45-0.50), which was slightly higher than the estimate for RFI (0.40 ± 0.09). Two traits had modest genetic correlations with RFI (DMI and feeding duration; 0.45 ± 0.13 and 0.27 ± 0.15, respectively), and 2 traits had modest phenotypic correlations with RFI (DMI and eating rate; 0.52 ± 0.03 and 0.23 ± 0.04, respectively). The results suggest that feeding behavior (1) may differ between efficient and inefficient animals and (2) may be useful for selecting animals with better feed efficiency. However, the limitation is that measurements on DMI are still essential. It is therefore possible that a more efficient selection tool for RFI may be the use of high-density DNA markers to make direct genomic predictions for RFI. HubMed – eating


Microbial Population Dynamics in the Faeces of Wood-eating Loricariid Catfishes.

Lett Appl Microbiol. 2013 Mar 5;
Di Maiuta N, Schwarzentruber P, Schenker M, Schoelkopf J

Catfishes of the genus Panaque are known for their ability to feed on wood, and hence to process cellulose fibres in their digestive systems. The paper industry uses cellulose fibres and thus has an interest in exploiting this property biomimetically: it could be employed as a pre-treatment to lessen the energy required by the mechanical production stage of manufacturing nanocellulose fibres. Here, we characterise the diet-associated in-situ microbial diversity and population dynamic in the faeces of catfish (Panaque sp.) exposed to consecutive diets of pellet food and then wood. Fish faeces samples were collected and investigated by parallel DNA deep amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA SSU for both diet conditions. The most frequently occurring bacterium in the faeces was Cetobacterium sp.. The dominant cellulolytic bacteria genera found in ascending relative abundance were: Aeromonas sp., Flavobacterium sp., Bacteroides sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Cellvibrio sp.. Diet-associated changes in the faeces microbiome were noted for Flavobacterium sp.. Extensive microbial diversity was found in catfish faeces, evidenced using culture-independent molecular techniques. No significant diet-associated effects on the microbiome in terms of biodiversity were observed in the catfish faeces, but diet-associated changes of the microbial population structure were observed. © 2013 The Authors Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for AppliedMicrobiology. HubMed – eating