Molecular Distribution of Amino Acid Substitutions on Neuraminidase From the 2009 (H1N1) Human Influenza Pandemic Virus.

Molecular distribution of amino acid substitutions on neuraminidase from the 2009 (H1N1) human influenza pandemic virus.

Bioinformation. 2013; 9(13): 673-9
Quiliano M, Valdivia-Olarte H, Olivares C, Requena D, Gutiérrez AH, Reyes-Loyola P, Tolentino-Lopez LE, Sheen P, Briz V, Muñoz-Fernández MA, Correa-Basurto J, Zimic M

The pandemic influenza AH1N1 (2009) caused an outbreak of human infection that spread to the world. Neuraminidase (NA) is an antigenic surface glycoprotein, which is essential to the influenza infection process, and is the target of anti-flu drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir. Currently, NA inhibitors are the pillar pharmacological strategy against seasonal and global influenza. Although mutations observed after NA-inhibitor treatment are characterized by changes in conserved amino acids of the enzyme catalytic site, it is possible that specific amino acid substitutions (AASs) distant from the active site such as H274Y, could confer oseltamivir or zanamivir resistance. To better understand the molecular distribution pattern of NA AASs, we analyzed NA AASs from all available reported pandemic AH1N1 NA sequences, including those reported from America, Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and specifically from Mexico. The molecular distributions of the AASs were obtained at the secondary structure domain level for both the active and catalytic sites, and compared between geographic regions. Our results showed that NA AASs from America, Asia, Europe, Oceania and Mexico followed similar molecular distribution patterns. The compiled data of this study showed that highly conserved amino acids from the NA active site and catalytic site are indeed being affected by mutations. The reported NA AASs follow a similar molecular distribution pattern worldwide. Although most AASs are distributed distantly from the active site, this study shows the emergence of mutations affecting the previously conserved active and catalytic site. A significant number of unique AASs were reported simultaneously on different continents. HubMed – drug

Comparison of the protective effects of ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma on primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

Pharmacogn Mag. 2013 Jul; 9(35): 202-9
Ren C, Bao YR, Meng XS, Diao YP, Kang TG

To simulate the ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo, hypoxia/reoxygenation injury model was established in vitro and primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were underwent hypoxia with hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) for 1 h followed by 1 h reoxygenation.Determination the cell viability by MTT colorimetric assay. We use kit to detect the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase. Do research on the effect which ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma have to self-discipline, conductivity, action potential duration and other electrophysiological phenomena of myocardial cells by direct observation using a microscope and recording method of intracellular action potential.The experimental datum showed that both can reduce the damage hydrosulfite to myocardial cell damage and improve myocardial viability, reduce the amount of LDH leak, increase activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, and increase APA (Action potential amplitude), Vmax (Maximum rate of depolarization) and MPD (Maximum potential diastolic).Taken together, therefore, we can get the conclusion that ferulic acid drug-containing plasma has better protective effect injured myocardial cell than ferulic acid. HubMed – drug

Orthogonal test design for optimizing the extraction of total flavonoids from Inula helenium.

Pharmacogn Mag. 2013 Jul; 9(35): 192-5
Guo CY, Wang J, Hou Y, Zhao YM, Shen LX, Zhang DS

Inula helenium, which belongs to thecomposite family, is an important crude drug in traditional Chinese medicine.The effects of ethanol concentration, liquid to solid ratio, extraction temperature, and duration of microwave irradiation on the flavonoid extraction yield were studied through a single-factor experiment. An orthogonal array (L9(3(4))) was then constructed to achieve the best extraction conditions.Variance analysis revealed that ethanol concentration significantly affected the extraction yield. The optimal conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration, 50% (v/v); liquid to solid ratio, 15:1; duration of microwave irradiation, 240 s; and extraction temperature, 60°C.Under these optimal conditions, the total flavonoid yield was 18.34 ± 0.64 mg/g. The use of a microwave-assisted process dramatically reduced the time needed for extraction of flavonoids from I. helenium. HubMed – drug

Immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of Nigella glandulifera freyn and sint seeds on ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mouse model.

Pharmacogn Mag. 2013 Jul; 9(35): 187-91
Aikemu A, Xiaerfuding X, Shiwenhui C, Abudureyimu M, Maimaitiyiming D

This study investigated the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of Nigella glandulifera Freyn and Sint seeds (NGS) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in a mouse model.Kunming mice with transplanted Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAC) were treated with NGS by oral administration. On the 11(th) day after the EAC implant, mouse thymus, liver, spleen and kidney tumors were removed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were taken for hematological and biochemical analyses.The results indicate that NGS treatment leads to an increase in TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-2 blood serum levels. Absence of viable EAC and presence of necrotic cells were observed in the tumor tissue of the NGS-treated animals.The study results indicated that a water extract of NGS had the highest anti-tumor effect. Moreover, NGS treatment also showed an increase in the immune system activity. HubMed – drug