Modifications of the Epley (Canalith Repositioning) Manoeuvre for Posterior Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV).

Modifications of the Epley (canalith repositioning) manoeuvre for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; 4: CD008675
Hunt WT, Zimmermann EF, Hilton MP

Benign paroxsymal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a syndrome characterised by short-lived episodes of vertigo associated with rapid changes in head position. It is a common cause of vertigo presenting to primary care and specialist otolaryngology (ENT) clinics. BPPV of the posterior canal is a specific type of BPPV for which the Epley (canalith repositioning) manoeuvre is a verified treatment. A range of modifications of the Epley manoeuvre are used in clinical practice, including post-Epley vestibular exercises and post-Epley postural restrictions.To assess whether the various modifications of the Epley manoeuvre for posterior canal BPPV enhance its efficacy in clinical practice.We searched the Cochrane ENT Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 15 December 2011.Randomised controlled trials of modifications of the Epley manoeuvre versus a standard Epley manoeuvre as a control in adults with posterior canal BPPV diagnosed with a positive Dix-Hallpike test. Specific modifications sought were: application of vibration/oscillation to the mastoid region, vestibular rehabilitation exercises, additional steps in the Epley manoeuvre and post-treatment instructions relating to movement restriction.Two authors independently selected studies from the search results and the third author reviewed and resolved any disagreement. Two authors independently extracted data from the studies using standardised data forms. All authors independently assessed the trials for risk of bias.The review includes 11 trials involving 855 participants. A total of nine studies used post-Epley postural restrictions as their modification of the Epley manoeuvre. There was no evidence of a difference in the results for post-treatment vertigo intensity or subjective assessment of improvement in individual or pooled data. All nine trials included the conversion of a positive to a negative Dix-Hallpike test as an outcome measure. Pooled data identified a significant difference from the addition of postural restrictions in the frequency of Dix-Hallpike conversion when compared to the Epley manoeuvre alone. In the experimental group 88.7% (220 out of 248) patients versus 78.2% (219 out of 280) in the control group converted from a positive to negative Dix-Hallpike test (risk ratio (RR) 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 1.22, P = 0.002). No serious adverse effects were reported, however three studies reported minor complications such as neck stiffness, horizontal BPPV, dizziness and disequilibrium in some patients.There was no evidence of benefit of mastoid oscillation applied during the Epley manoeuvre, or of additional steps in the Epley manoeuvre. No adverse effects were reported.There is evidence supporting a statistically significant effect of post-Epley postural restrictions in comparison to the Epley manoeuvre alone. However, it important to note that this statistically significant effect only highlights a small improvement in treatment efficacy. An Epley manoeuvre alone is effective in just under 80% of patients with typical BPPV. The additional intervention of postural restrictions has a number needed to treat (NNT) of 10. The addition of postural restrictions does not expose the majority of patients to risk of harm, does not pose a major inconvenience, and can be routinely discussed and advised. Specific patients who experience discomfort due to wearing a cervical collar and inconvenience in sleeping upright may be treated with the Epley manoeuvre alone and still expect to be cured in most instances.There is insufficient evidence to support the routine application of mastoid oscillation during the Epley manoeuvre, or additional steps in an ‘augmented’ Epley manoeuvre. Neither treatment is associated with adverse outcomes. Further studies should employ a rigorous randomisation technique, blinded outcome assessment, a post-treatment Dix-Hallpike test as an outcome measure and longer-term follow-up of patients.
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Predictors of discharge to acute care after inpatient rehabilitation in severely affected stroke patients.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 May; 91(5): 387-92
Chung DM, Niewczyk P, Divita M, Markello S, Granger C

This study aimed to determine the predictors of discharge to acute care after inpatient rehabilitation in severely affected stroke patients.This was a retrospective study using data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMR) between 2008 and 2009. The main outcome variable was discharge location, which included discharge to acute care or discharge to the community after inpatient rehabilitation. The study sample included 223 of the most severely affected stroke patients (Case-Mix Group 0110 of Medicare reimbursement classification), of whom 86 were discharged to acute care from after the inpatient medical rehabilitation setting; 137 similarly classified stroke patients were discharged to the community after inpatient medical rehabilitation. The variables examined were Functional Independence Measure ratings, co-morbid medical conditions, and four groups of stroke-related neurologic deficits (hemiparesis, dysphagia, language deficits, and other stroke-related neurologic deficits). The groups were devised based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes.There were no significant demographic differences between the two groups-those discharged to the acute care hospital and those discharged to the community. There was a difference in admission Functional Independence Measure ratings, whereby patients discharged to acute care were significantly lower (P < 0.05) on admission motor and cognitive function than were patients discharged to the community. When controlling for 19 groups of co-morbid medical conditions and 4 groups of stroke-related neurologic deficits, there was no significant difference between patients being discharged to an acute care hospital and those discharged to the community.In the current study, controlling for impairment (stroke), severity of condition, demographic variables, inpatient rehabilitation admission day of the week and discharge day of the week, prehospitalization living setting, prehospitalization living with (alone, family, other), payer (secondary insurance coverage), onset days, co-morbid medical conditions, and classification of stroke-related neurologic deficits, the only variable predictive of discharge to the acute care hospital from an inpatient rehabilitation facility is function at admission, mainly the admission motor Functional Independence Measure rating. If clinicians routinely assess the functional status of patients during the preadmission screening process, it may aid in identifying whether the patient is at an increased risk of being readmitted to the acute care hospital. HubMed – rehab


Obesity and Brain Addiction Circuitry: Implications for Deep Brain Stimulation.

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Neurosurgery. 2012 Apr 17;
Taghva A, Corrigan JD, Rezai AR

ABSTRACT:: Obesity is a growing health problem worldwide and is responsible for a significant proportion of health expenditures in developed nations. It is also notoriously difficult to treat. Prior attempts at pharmacological or neurologic modulation, including deep brain stimulation, have primarily targeted homeostatic mechanisms of weight control centered in the hypothalamus. To date, these attempts have had limited success. Multiple lines of independent data suggest that dysregulated reward circuitry in the brain underlies behaviors leading to obesity. In this paper, we review the existing data and related neurocircuitry, as well as the scope of obesity and currently available treatments. Finally, we suggest a neuromodulation strategy geared toward regulating these dysfunctional circuits, primarily by alteration of frontolimbic circuits.
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Blood pressure change and antihypertensive treatment in old and very old people: evidence of age, sex and cohort effects.

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J Hum Hypertens. 2012 Apr 19;
Molander L, Lövheim H

The epidemiology of blood pressure in very old age has not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to study blood pressure changes throughout old age and changes in blood pressure and antihypertensive drug use from 1981 to 2005. The study includes 1133 blood pressure measurements from two studies carried out in Umeå, Sweden. The U70 study (1981-1990) included individuals aged 70-88 and the Umeå 85+/GERDA study (2000-2005) covered people aged 85, 90 or ?95 years. The impact of age, sex and year of investigation on blood pressure was investigated using linear regression. Mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased by 0.35?mm?Hg (P<0.001) for each year of age. An inverted U-shaped relation was found between age and systolic blood pressure (SBP), with SBP reaching its maximum at 74.5 years. Mean SBP and DBP also decreased over time (SBP by 0.44?mm?Hg per year, P<0.001 and DBP by 0.34?mm?Hg per year, P<0.001). The proportion of participants on antihypertensive drugs increased from 39.0% in 1981 to 69.4% in 2005. In this study of people aged ?70 years, mean SBP and DBP decreased with higher age and later investigation year. Antihypertensive drug use increased with time, which might partly explain the observed cohort effect.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 19 April 2012; doi:10.1038/jhh.2012.14. HubMed – rehab


US: Investigate Ethics in China Drug Study

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(New York) – A study about heroin cravings partially funded by a US agency and conducted in two Chinese drug rehabilitation centers raises serious questions about research ethics, Human Rights Watch said today. The research on memory retrieval and …
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