Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Major Depressive Disorder.

Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and major depressive disorder.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013; 9: 567-73
Tobe EH

There is controversy about depression being a physical illness, in part because a reproducible, sensitive, and specific biologic marker is not available. However, there is evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress may be associated with abnormal brain function and mood disorders, such as depression. This paper reviews selected human and animal studies providing evidence that intracellular mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction in specific brain regions is associated with major depressive disorder. This supports the hypothesis that chronic mitochondrial dysfunction in specific tissues may be associated with depression. Evaluation of mitochondrial dysfunction in specific tissues may broaden the perspective of depression beyond theories about neurotransmitters or receptor sites, and may explain the persistent signs and symptoms of depression. HubMed – depression


Double-blind, comparative study of milnacipran and paroxetine in Japanese patients with major depression.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013; 9: 555-65
Kamijima K, Hashimoto S, Nagayoshi E, Koyama T

A double-blind, parallel-group, controlled study was performed to investigate if milnacipran was noninferior to paroxetine in terms of improvement in symptoms of depression in Japanese patients with major depressive disorders in a fixed-dose design. The efficacy and safety of milnacipran 200 mg/day were also assessed in comparison with those at the standard dose of 100 mg/day.Changes in 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D) total score (mean ± standard deviation) for group M1 (milnacipran 100 mg/day), group M2 (milnacipran 200 mg/day), and group PX (paroxetine 30 or 40 mg/day) were -12.9 ± 5.8, -12.8 ± 6.1, and -13.1 ± 6.2, respectively, and the estimated differences in total score for group PX (Dunnett’s 95% simultaneous confidence interval) were 0.1 (-1.1 to 1.3) for group M1 and 0.3 (-0.9 to 1.5) for group M2. The noninferiority of groups M1 and M2 to group PX was thus confirmed, because the upper confidence limit of differences between groups M1 and PX and between groups M2 and PX was less than 2.0. The estimated mean difference of change in HAM-D total score (95% confidence interval) between groups M2 and M1 was 0.2 (-0.9 to 1.2), indicating a comparable change in total score for both groups. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events was 71.7% for group M1, 68.8% for group M2, and 69.3% for group PX, indicating no significant difference between the three groups.These results demonstrate that milnacipran 100 mg/day and 200 mg/day is not inferior to paroxetine in terms of efficacy and safety. HubMed – depression


Role for the kinase SGK1 in stress, depression, and glucocorticoid effects on hippocampal neurogenesis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 6;
Anacker C, Cattaneo A, Musaelyan K, Zunszain PA, Horowitz M, Molteni R, Luoni A, Calabrese F, Tansey K, Gennarelli M, Thuret S, Price J, Uher R, Riva MA, Pariante CM

Stress and glucocorticoid hormones regulate hippocampal neurogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are poorly understood. Here we identify the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) target gene, serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1), as one such mechanism. Using a human hippocampal progenitor cell line, we found that a small molecule inhibitor for SGK1, GSK650394, counteracted the cortisol-induced reduction in neurogenesis. Moreover, gene expression and pathway analysis showed that inhibition of the neurogenic Hedgehog pathway by cortisol was SGK1-dependent. SGK1 also potentiated and maintained GR activation in the presence of cortisol, and even after cortisol withdrawal, by increasing GR phosphorylation and GR nuclear translocation. Experiments combining the inhibitor for SGK1, GSK650394, with the GR antagonist, RU486, demonstrated that SGK1 was involved in the cortisol-induced reduction in progenitor proliferation both downstream of GR, by regulating relevant target genes, and upstream of GR, by increasing GR function. Corroborating the relevance of these findings in clinical and rodent settings, we also observed a significant increase of SGK1 mRNA in peripheral blood of drug-free depressed patients, as well as in the hippocampus of rats subjected to either unpredictable chronic mild stress or prenatal stress. Our findings identify SGK1 as a mediator for the effects of cortisol on neurogenesis and GR function, with particular relevance to stress and depression. HubMed – depression


Analysis of Pediatric Clinical Drug Trials for Neuropsychiatric Conditions.

Pediatrics. 2013 May 6;
Murthy S, Mandl KD, Bourgeois F

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Neuropsychiatric conditions represent a large and increasing disease burden in children. A number of drugs are available for the treatment of these conditions, but most drugs have not been adequately tested in children, and off-label drug use remains widespread. We sought to define and quantify recent and ongoing clinical research on the use of neuropsychiatric drugs in children.METHODS:Drug trials registered in between 2006 and 2011 and studying neuropsychiatric conditions were selected and classified based on the drug’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval status in children. We measured the proportion of trials seeking to expand the use of a drug to pediatric patients and the proportion of available drugs studied in children.RESULTS:Only 10% of neuropsychiatric trials focused on children. Of 303 drugs studied in both pediatric and adult populations, 90% lacked FDA approval in children and 97% were not approved in children for the indication studied. However, only 19% of all neuropsychiatric drugs were under study in pediatric populations, with as few as 8% of either antidepressant or antipsychotic drugs. Overall, 76% of pediatric drug trials examined a drug previously unapproved in children and 26% explored the use of a drug for a new indication.CONCLUSIONS:Despite the rising prevalence of neuropsychiatric disease and the paucity of FDA-approved pediatric drugs, only a small proportion of trials focus on pediatric populations and these trials cover only a fraction of available drugs. This deficiency is most pronounced for depression and schizophrenia. HubMed – depression



Depression Treatment Tips – Dr. Jack Yu – Dr. Jack Yu talks about depression treatments and talk therapy.