Metacercariae of Clinostomum Complanatum (Trematoda: Digenea) in European Newts Triturus Carnifex and Lissotriton Vulgaris (Caudata: Salamandridae).

Metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum (Trematoda: Digenea) in European newts Triturus carnifex and Lissotriton vulgaris (Caudata: Salamandridae).

J Helminthol. 2013 Mar 18; 1-8
Caffara M, Bruni G, Paoletti C, Gustinelli A, Fioravanti ML

Adults of Clinostomum spp. are digenetic trematodes found in fish-eating birds, reptiles and occasionally mammals, including humans. Freshwater snails serve as first intermediate hosts and many fish species and amphibians as second intermediate hosts. To date, amphibian hosts of Clinostomum metacercariae include members of urodele and anuran families in North America, but no data are available on infections of European amphibians, including newts. In this study, we characterize infections of Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae in four smooth (Lissotriton vulgaris) and 18 Italian crested newts (Triturus carnifex) from an artificial pond located in a protected area in Tuscany, Italy. Parasites were surgically removed from the infected newts and identified both morphologically and using sequences of a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I, and the ribosomal markers, internal transcribed spacers. This is the first record of C. complanatum in European newts and, more generally, in amphibians in Europe. HubMed – eating


Exploring changes in physical activity, sedentary behaviors and hypothesized mediators in the NEAT girls group randomized controlled trial.

J Sci Med Sport. 2013 Mar 15;
Dewar DL, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, Okely AD, Batterham M, Lubans DR

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a 12-month school-based multi-component program on adolescent girls’ physical activity and sedentary behaviors, and hypothesized mediators of physical activity behavior change. DESIGN: Group randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. METHODS: The intervention, guided by Social Cognitive Theory, involved 357 adolescent girls (13.2±0.5 years) from 12 secondary schools (6 intervention schools, 6 control schools) in low-income communities in the Hunter and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. The intervention included enhanced school sport, lunchtime physical activity sessions, interactive seminars, student handbooks, nutrition workshops, pedometers, parent newsletters and text messages to encourage physical activity and healthy eating, and a decrease in sedentary behavior. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12-months and included: physical activity (accelerometers), sedentary behaviors (questionnaire and accelerometers), and social-cognitive mediators of physical activity (questionnaire). RESULTS: There were significant between group differences in favor of the intervention group for self-reported recreational computer use (-26.0min; 95% CI, -46.9 to -5.1), and sedentary activities summed (-56.4min; 95% CI, -110.1 to -2.7), however objective sedentary behavior showed no differences. There were no group-by-time effects for any of the physical activity outcomes or hypothesized mediators. CONCLUSION: A school-based intervention tailored for adolescent girls from schools located in low-income communities significantly reduced time spent in sedentary activities. However, improvements in physical activity and hypothesized mediators of physical activity behavior were not observed. Future studies are encouraged to explore alternative mechanisms of behavior change derived from integrated and socio-ecological theories. HubMed – eating


The prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst patients with severe mental illness in the community in Hong Kong — a cross sectional study.

BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Mar 18; 13(1): 87
Bressington DT, Mui J, Cheung EF, Petch J, Clark AB, Gray R

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk of developing metabolic disorders. The risk of metabolic syndrome in the Hong Kong general population is lower than that observed in western countries; however the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong is unknown. METHOD: This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong and to identify the relationships between metabolic syndrome and socio-demographic, clinical and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: A total of 139 patients with a diagnosis of severe mental illness participated in the study. The unadjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 35%. The relative risk of metabolic syndrome in comparison with the general Hong Kong population was 2.008 (95% CI 1.59-2.53, p < 0.001). In a logistic regression model sleep disruption and being prescribed first generation antipsychotics were significantly associated with the syndrome, whilst eating less than 3 portions of fruit/vegetables per day and being married were weakly associated. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent and that physical health inequalities in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong are similar to those observed in western countries. The results provide sufficient evidence to support the need for intervention studies in this setting and reinforce the requirement to conduct regular physical health checks for all patients with severe mental illness. HubMed – eating