Metabolic Syndrome and Monotherapy Antipsychotic Treatment Among Schizophrenia Patients in Malaysia.

Metabolic syndrome and monotherapy antipsychotic treatment among schizophrenia patients in Malaysia.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Prev Med. 2013 Jan 18;
Said MA, Hatim A, Habil MH, Zafidah W, Haslina MY, Badiah Y, Ramli MA, Ananjit S, Sapini Y, Shah M, Mahmud B, Bulgiba A, Hairi NN

OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among schizophrenia patients receiving monotherapy antipsychotic in Malaysia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted at multiple centres between June 2008 and September 2011. Two hundred and five patients who fulfilled the DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and who had been on antipsychotic medication for at least one year, were screened for metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving mood stabilizer were excluded from the study. Metabolic syndrome was defined by using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults Treatment Panel III (ATP III) modified for Asian waist circumference. RESULTS: In the first-generation antipsychotic (FGA) group, the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome was among patients treated with trifluoperazine and flupenthixol decanoate (66.7% each). For second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) group, the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome was among patients treated with clozapine (66.7%). The highest prevalence for metabolic syndrome component was the waist circumference in both FGA and SGA except for aripiprazole in SGA. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia patients receiving monotherapy antipsychotic in Malaysia was very high. Intervention measures are urgently needed to combat these problems.
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Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression and conditioned place aversion during protracted withdrawal from chronic intermittent escalating-dose heroin in POMC-EGFP promoter transgenic mice.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Neuroscience. 2013 Jan 18;
Niikura K, Zhou Y, Ho A, Kreek MJ

In heroin-dependent individuals, the drive to avoid or ameliorate the negative affective/emotional state associated with the discontinuation of heroin contributes to the chronic relapsing nature of the disease. Here, we investigate changes in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression at three time points across an extended period of heroin withdrawal in a clinically relevant rodent model of addiction using conditioned place aversion (CPA) in POMC-EGFP bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice. Neurons expressing POMC-EGFP were found in the medial nucleus of amygdala (MeA), basomedial amygdala (BMA) and dentate gyrus of hippocampus (DG), as well as the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus (ARC). Heroin-treated mice displayed robust CPA after acute spontaneous withdrawal (12h), which persisted across the extended (14d) withdrawal period. After 12h withdrawal, heroin-treated mice showed lower signal intensity of POMC-EGFP positive cells in the ARC, higher levels of POMC mRNA in the amygdala but lower levels in the hippocampus than saline controls. After 7d withdrawal, heroin-treated mice showed fewer POMC-EGFP positive cells in the MeA and lower POMC mRNA in the amygdala than saline controls. After extended (14d) withdrawal, heroin-treated mice showed more POMC-EGFP positive cells in BMA and DG, increased intensity of POMC-EGFP signal in DG, and higher POMC mRNA levels in hippocampus compared to controls. Our results show dynamic changes in POMC in hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions that may contribute to the negative affective/emotional state of heroin withdrawal shown by CPA from acute to extended periods of heroin withdrawal.
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[Characteristics of heroin dependent patients admitted to a methadone treatment program.]

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Med Clin (Barc). 2013 Jan 18;
Sanvisens A, Rivas I, Faure E, Muñoz T, Rubio M, Fuster D, Tor J, Muga R

BACKGROUND AND OBJETIVE: Methadone is largely used as the primary opioid substitution therapy for the treatment of heroin addiction; the objective of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics of heroin abusers admitted into a methadone maintenance program (MMP) in metropolitan Barcelona. METHOD: Cross-sectional study in patients enrolled in MMP since its introduction in 1992 through December 2010. Socio-demographic data, drug use characteristics, prevalence of blood-borne infections (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and hepatitis B [HBV] and C [HCV]) and psychiatric co-morbidity were assessed at entry. RESULTS: One thousand and six hundred seventy eight patients (82.8% male). A total of 608 (36.2%) patients were admitted during 1992-1996, 566 (33.7%) between 1997-2001, 305 (18.2%) between 2002-2006 and 199 (11.9%) in the last period. Age at admission to methadone increased significantly (28 years in period 1992-1996 vs. 37 years in the last period [P<.005]). The percentage of patients with a history of intravenous drug use decreased significantly (89.5% in first period vs. 56.4% in period 2007-2010 [P<.05]). Prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV (HBcAb+) was 53.7, 73.6 and 61.3%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV decreased over time from 66.2% in first period to 43.5% in 2007-2010 (P<.05); the prevalence of HCV decreased significantly from 82.8% in 1992-1996 to 69.8% in last period (P<.05). Twenty five percent of patients had psychiatric co-morbidity at admission and the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity increased over time (21% in 1992-1996 and 32% in 2007-2010; P<.05). CONCLUSION: Age at first opioid substitution therapy is increasing over time, as well as the proportion of patients with psychiatric co-morbidity. There were significant reductions in blood-borne infections. HubMed – addiction


Effects of tai chi on the protracted abstinence syndrome: a time trial analysis.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Am J Chin Med. 2013; 41(1): 43-57
Li DX, Zhuang XY, Zhang YP, Guo H, Wang Z, Zhang Q, Feng YM, Yao YG

While exercise has been shown to reduce the negative effects of substance withdrawal symptoms, no research has investigated if Tai Chi, a traditional Chinese exercise, has similar effects. Here, we observed the physiological effects of Tai Chi on protracted abstinence syndrome (PAS) in female heroin addicts by comprehensively inspecting their immune system function, complete blood count, hepatic function and renal function. To determine the psychological effects, we used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the rating scale of heroin withdrawal symptoms. We recruited 70 heroin-addicted young women beginning to undergo withdrawal and randomly assigned them into two groups: one group received one-hour Tai Chi exercise every two days (Tai Chi group, n = 36) and the other group did not (control group, n = 34). Thirty-three patients finished this six-month trial. Numerous significant physiological differences were observed between all heroin-addicted subjects (n = 70) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 18), suggesting a deleterious effect of drug addiction. There were improvements for certain physical parameters between the Tai Chi group (n = 17) and the control group (n = 16), although the differences were not statistically significant. We observed a small significant difference in psychological effects near the 60-day mark between the two groups. Taken together, our results suggest that Tai Chi might have a positive effect on PAS, which future studies can confirm by using an expanded sample size, longer trial time, and more sensitive and specific indicators of psychological and physiological health.
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