Measuring Procedures to Determine the Cobb Angle in Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Systematic Review.

Measuring procedures to determine the Cobb angle in idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review.

Eur Spine J. 2013 Feb 27;
Langensiepen S, Semler O, Sobottke R, Fricke O, Franklin J, Schönau E, Eysel P

BACKGROUND: Scoliosis of the vertebral column can be assessed with the Cobb angle (Cobb 1948). This examination is performed manually by measuring the angle on radiographs and is considered the gold standard. However, studies evaluating the reproducibility of this procedure have shown high variability in intra- and inter-observer agreement. Because of technical advancements, interests in new procedures to determine the Cobb angle has been renewed. This review aims to systematically investigate the reproducibility of various new techniques to determine the Cobb angle in idiopathic scoliosis and to assess whether new technical procedures are reasonable alternatives when compared to manual measurement of the Cobb angle. METHOD: Systematic review. Studies examining procedures used to determine the Cobb angle were selected. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Statistical results of reliability and agreement were summarised and described. RESULTS: Eleven studies of new measuring procedures were included, all reporting the reproducibility. The new procedures can be divided into computer-assisted procedures, automatic procedures and smartphone apps. CONCLUSIONS: All investigated measuring procedures showed high degrees of reliability. In general, digital procedures tend to be slightly better than manual ones. For all other measurement procedures (automatic or smartphone), results varied. Studies implementing vertebral pre-selection and observer training achieved better agreement. HubMed – rehab


Gua Lou Gui Zhi decoction exerts neuroprotective effects on post-stroke spasticity via the modulation of glutamate levels and AMPA receptor expression.

Int J Mol Med. 2013 Jan 30;
Huang J, Tao J, Xue X, Yang S, Han P, Lin Z, Xu W, Lin J, Peng J, Chen L

Spasticity is one of the most physically debilitating disabilities following stroke and may slow down the potential success of rehabilitation. Glutamate and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors have been shown to play a crucial role in spasticity following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Gua Lou Gui Zhi decoction (GLGZD) is a well-known traditional Chinese formula that has long been used clinically in China to treat muscular spasticity following stroke, epilepsy or spinal cord injury. However, the precise mechanisms behind its neuroprotective and anti-spasticity effects remain poorly understood. In the present study, using a rat model of focal cerebral I/R injury, we evaluated the neuroprotective and anti-spasticity effects of GLGZD and investigated the underlying mechanisms. We found that GLGZD improved neurological de?cits and reduced infarct volumes in cerebral I/R-injured rats. In addition, GLGZD reduced cerebral ischemic spasticity since it improved the screen test and Hoffman’s reflex (H-reflex) scores. It also reduced glutamate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid and altered the expression of the AMPA receptor subunits. Our data demonstrate that GLGZD exerts neuroprotective and anti-spasticity effects in a cerebral ischemia model via the modulation of glutamate levels and AMPA receptor expression. HubMed – rehab


Introduction to the Special Issue of Neuropsychology Review on Cognitive Enhancement and Rehabilitation.

Neuropsychol Rev. 2013 Feb 27;
Sullivan EV, Tapert SF

HubMed – rehab


Increases of Quadriceps Inter-Muscular Cross-Correlation and Coherence during Exhausting Stepping Exercise.

Sensors (Basel). 2012; 12(12): 16353-67
Chang YJ, Chou CC, Chan HL, Hsu MJ, Yeh MY, Fang CY, Chuang YF, Wei SH, Lien HY

The aim of this study was to examine the change of the intermuscular cross-correlation and coherence of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) during exhausting stepping exercise. Eleven healthy adults repeated the stepping exercise up to their individual endurance limits (RPE score reached 20), and the cross-correlation and coherence were assessed by surface electromyography (EMG) recordings. The coefficient and time lag of cross-correlation and the coherence areas in the alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), gamma (30-60 Hz) and high-gamma (60-150 Hz) bands among the three muscle pairs (RF-VM, RF-VL and VM-VL) were calculated. As muscle fatigue, RF-VM and VM-VL showed increases of coefficients and the shortening of time lags. RF-VM and RF-VL showed increases of beta-band coherence in the ascent and descent phases, respectively. The increased intermuscular cross-correlation and beta-band coherence may be a compensatory strategy for maintaining the coordination of knee synergistic muscles during fatigue due to the fatigue-related disturbance of the corticospinal transmission. Therefore, the intermuscular cross-correlation and beta-band coherence may be a potential index for assessing muscle fatigue and monitoring the central control of motor function during dynamic fatiguing exercise. HubMed – rehab