Maximizing Patient Autonomy to Improve Outcomes.

Maximizing patient autonomy to improve outcomes.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2013 Jan; 74(1): C14-6
Stephenson LA, Wagner SJ, Bolton D

HubMed – eating


Cannibalism and Predation as Paths for Horizontal Passage of Wolbachia between Terrestrial Isopods.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e60232
Le Clec’h W, Chevalier FD, Genty L, Bertaux J, Bouchon D, Sicard M

The alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia are the most widespread endosymbionts in arthropods and nematodes. Mainly maternally inherited, these so-called sex parasites have selected several strategies that increase their vertical dispersion in host populations. However, the lack of congruence between the Wolbachia and their host phylogenies suggests frequent horizontal transfers. One way that could be used for horizontal Wolbachia transfers between individuals is predation. The aim of this study was to test whether horizontal passage of Wolbachia is possible when an uninfected terrestrial isopod eats an infected one. After having eaten Armadillidium vulgare harbouring Wolbachia, the predator-recipients (the two woodlice A. vulgare and Porcellio dilatatus dilatatus) that were initially Wolbachia-free were tested positive for the presence of Wolbachia both by quantitative PCR and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH). Even if the titers were low compared to vertically infected individuals, this constitutes the first demonstration of Wolbachia occurrence in various organs of an initially uninfected host after eating an infected one. HubMed – eating


Dietary Intervention with Mediterranean or Healthy Eating Goals has Similar Effects on Serum and Colon Concentrations of Carotenoids and Fatty Acids.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Apr 16;
Sen A, Ren J, Ruffin MT, Turgeon DK, Brenner DE, Sidahmed E, Rapai ME, Cornellier ML, Djuric Z

Little is known about dietary effect on colonic nutrient concentrations associated with preventive foods. This study observed 120 persons at increased risk of colon cancer randomized to a Mediterranean versus a Healthy Eating diet for six months. The former targeted increases in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, monounsaturated and n3 fats. Healthy Eating diet was based on Healthy People 2010 recommendations. At baseline, dietary fat and carotenoid intakes were poorly associated (Spearman ? < 0.4) with serum and colon concentrations. Strong associations were observed between serum and colon measurements of ?-cryptoxanthin (? = 0.58, p-value < 0.001), ?-carotene (? = 0.48, p-value < 0.001), and ?-carotene (? = 0.45, p-value < 0.001). After six months, the Healthy Eating arm increased serum lutein, ?- and ?-carotene significantly (p-value < 0.05). In the Mediterranean arm the significant increases were in serum lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, ?-carotene, monounsaturated and n3 fats. A significant group-by-time interaction (p-value = 0.03) was obtained for monounsaturated fats. Colonic increases in carotenoids and n3 fats were significant only in Healthy Eating arm, while group-by-time interaction were significant for ?-carotene (p-value = 0.02), and ?-carotene (p-value = 0.03). Changes in colon concentrations were not significantly associated with reported dietary changes. Changes in colon and serum concentrations were strongly associated for ?-cryptoxanthin (? = 0.56, p-value < 0.001), and ?-carotene (? = 0.40, p-value < 0.001). The associations between colonic and serum concentrations suggest the potential utility of using serum concentration as a target in dietary interventions aimed at reducing colon cancer risk. HubMed – eating


Moderate-To-vigorous physical activity is associated with decreases in body mass index from ages 9 to 15 years.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Mar; 21(3): E280-E293
Mitchell JA, Pate RR, España-Romero V, O’Neill JR, Dowda M, Nader PR

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether time spent in objectively measured physical activity is associated with change in body mass index (BMI) from ages 9 to 15. DESIGN AND METHODS: The participants were enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 938). At ages 9, 11, 12, and 15 the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was objectively measured, and BMI was calculated (kg/m(2) ). Longitudinal quantile regression was used to analyze the data. The 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th BMI percentiles were modeled as the dependent variables with age and MVPA (h/day) modeled as predictors. Adjustment was also made for gender, race, sleep, healthy eating score, maternal education, and sedentary behavior. RESULTS: A negative association between MVPA and change in BMI was observed at the 90th BMI percentile (-3.57, 95% CI -5.15 to -1.99 kg/m(2) per hour of MVPA). The negative association between time spent in MVPA and change in BMI was progressively weaker toward the 10th BMI percentile (-0.27, 95% CI -0.62 to 0.07 kg/m(2) per hour of MVPA). The associations remained similar after adjusting for the covariates, and when the analyses were stratified by gender. CONCLUSION: Time spent in MVPA was negatively associated with change in BMI from age 9 to 15. The association was strongest at the upper tail of the BMI distribution, and increasing time spent in MVPA could help reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity. HubMed – eating



Beacon Hill Chat – Senator Chandler Talks Eating Disorders – Part 1 – Stuart Koman, Ph.D., president and CEO of Walden Behavioral Care, and Krystin Tyman, executive director of the Multi-Service Eating Disorder Association (MED…