Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Mapping of Whole Brain Activity Patterns Associated With the Intake of Snack Food in Ad Libitum Fed Rats.

Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated with the intake of snack food in ad libitum fed rats.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e55354
Hoch T, Kreitz S, Gaffling S, Pischetsrieder M, Hess A

Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet’s molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl(2) solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g. dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus) or to the satiety system (e.g. arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract); 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen). Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn(2+)-accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn(2+)-accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior.
HubMed – addiction


Differential psychological impact of internet exposure on internet addicts.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e55162
Romano M, Osborne LA, Truzoli R, Reed P

The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and autism traits. High internet-users also showed a pronounced decrease in mood following internet use compared to the low internet-users. The immediate negative impact of exposure to the internet on the mood of internet addicts may contribute to increased usage by those individuals attempting to reduce their low mood by re-engaging rapidly in internet use.
HubMed – addiction


Changes in the expression of hippocampal proteins in rats with recrudescence of morphine addiction.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Exp Ther Med. 2013 Mar; 5(3): 825-829
Qiu H, Gao Y, Fu Y, DU L, Qiu T, Feng K, Luo Q, Meng H

The high recrudescence rate of drug addiction has received attention worldwide and its mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to analyse the disparate protein expression in the hippocampal tissue of rats with recrudescence of morphine addiction, as well as to provide clues for the exploration of the recrudescence mechanism. Sixteen male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into the morphine and physiological saline groups. Effective nose pokes were determined as the main index. The proteins were separated using the immobilised pH gradient two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Disparate protein spots were analysed using the PDQuest 2-DE software. Peptide dactylograms were obtained using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The effective nose poke counts of the morphine group significantly increased during addiction maturation compared with the saline group (P<0.001). The post-recrudescence nose poke counts of the morphine group significantly increased compared with those before recrudescence (P<0.001). Fifteen disparate proteins were identified according to the protein electrophoresis of the morphine and physiological saline groups, including three proteins associated with energy metabolism, two ionic channel regulatory proteins, one heat shock protein and one exogenous substance metabolic enzyme. The energy metabolism and expression of cell metabolism-related proteins decreased in the hippocampus of rats with morphine recrudescence. HubMed – addiction


Chemistry, metabolism, and toxicology of cannabis: clinical implications.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Iran J Psychiatry. 2012; 7(4): 149-56
Sharma P, Murthy P, Bharath MM

Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9_)THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects.Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use.In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis.
HubMed – addiction



You Have To Face Your Demons – Jonan desperately wants his heorin addicted daughter, Lindsey to go to rehab. She says, she’s not sure if rehab is really worth it. Jeremy gives her a reality check about her destructive behavior. If she wants to change her life around, she’ll have to go through hell and back! TELL US: Do you agree with Jeremy? Does Lindsey have a long road a head of her?


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