Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults.

Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in older adults.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Diabetes Metab J. 2012 Oct; 36(5): 336-44
Kim KS, Kim SK, Sung KM, Cho YW, Park SW

In the near future, the majority of patients with diabetes will be adults aged 65 or older. Unlike young adults with diabetes, elderly diabetic people may be affected by a variety of comorbid conditions such as depression, cognitive impairment, muscle weakness (sarcopenia), falls and fractures, and physical frailty. These geriatric syndromes should be considered in the establishment of treatment goals in older adults with diabetes. Although there are several guidelines for the management of diabetes, only a few are specifically designed for the elderly with diabetes. In this review, we present specific conditions of elderly diabetes which should be taken into account in the management of diabetes in older adults. We also present advantages and disadvantages of various glucose-lowering agents that should be considered when choosing a proper regimen for older adults with diabetes.
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Association between depression and peripheral artery disease: insights from the heart and soul study.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Am Heart Assoc. 2012 Aug; 1(4): e002667
Grenon SM, Hiramoto J, Smolderen KG, Vittinghoff E, Whooley MA, Cohen BE

Depression is known to increase the risk of coronary artery disease, but few studies have evaluated the association between depression and peripheral artery disease (PAD). We examined the association of depression with PAD and evaluated potential mediators of this association.We used data from the Heart and Soul Study, a prospective cohort of 1024 men and women with coronary artery disease recruited in 2000-2002 and followed for a mean of 7.2±2.6 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the validated 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Prevalent PAD at baseline was determined by self-report. Prospective PAD events were adjudicated on the basis of review of medical records. We used logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models to estimate the independent associations of depressive symptoms with prevalent PAD and subsequent PAD events. At baseline, 199 patients (19%) had depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire ?10). Prevalent PAD was reported by 12% of patients with depression and 7% of those without depression (base model adjusted for age and sex: odds ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.06-3.04, P=0.03; full model adjusted for comorbidities, medications, PAD risk factors, inflammation, and health behaviors: odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 0.90-2.83, P=0.11). During follow-up, PAD events occurred in 7% of patients with depression and 5% of those without depression (base model adjusted for age and sex: hazard ratio 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.09-4.00, P=0.03; full model adjusted for comorbidities, medications, PAD risk factors, inflammation, and health behaviors: hazard ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 0.65-2.71, P=0.44). Factors explaining >5% of the association between depression and incident PAD events included race/ethnicity, diabetes, congestive heart failure, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride levels, serum creatinine, inflammation, smoking, and levels of physical activity.Depressive symptoms were associated with a greater risk of PAD. Because the association was explained partly by modifiable risk factors, our findings suggest that more aggressive treatment of these risk factors could reduce the excess risk of PAD associated with depression. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e002667 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.002667.).
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Global Psychological Distress and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation Among Women: The Women’s Health Study.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Am Heart Assoc. 2012 Jun; 1(3): e001107
Whang W, Davidson KW, Conen D, Tedrow UB, Everett BM, Albert CM

Symptoms of psychological distress and depression have been associated with risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Their relationship with atrial arrhythmias, however, is less well studied.We sought to assess the long-term relations between psychological distress and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Women’s Health Study of female health professionals. We measured psychological symptoms with the Mental Health Inventory-5. Incident AF was assessed annually and verified through medical records. Among 30 746 women without history of cardiovascular disease or AF, 771 cases of AF occurred during a median follow-up of 125 months (interquartile range, 117-130 months). Global psychological distress was not associated with AF risk in age-stratified (P=0.61 for linear trend) or multivariable proportional-hazards models that included antidepressant use (P=0.34). A proxy measure for depression, consisting of Mental Health Inventory-5 score <53, antidepressant use, or both, was also not associated with AF risk in multivariable models (hazard ratio=0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.25; P=0.93). In post hoc analyses of individual symptoms from the Mental Health Inventory-5, positive affect, "feeling happy some/a good bit of the time," was associated with reduced risk of AF (hazard ratio=0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.99; P=0.04); other depressive and anxious symptoms were not.In this prospective study of women without known cardiovascular disease, global psychological distress and specific depressive symptoms were unrelated to AF risk. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e001107 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.001107.). HubMed – depression


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