Malakoplakia of the Esophagus Caused by Human Papillomavirus Infection.

Malakoplakia of the esophagus caused by human papillomavirus infection.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Dec 7; 18(45): 6690-2
Yang YL, Xie YC, Li XL, Guo J, Sun T, Tang J

Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous disease probably caused by infection and characterized histologically by Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. We report a more rarely seen case esophageal malakoplakia in a 54-year-old woman. She presented with coughing while eating and drinking. Gastroscopy showed yellow nodules in the esophagus, and endoscopic ultrasonography showed a space-occupying lesion in the substratum of the esophageal mucosa. All findings highly resembled esophageal cancer. Histopathological examination finally indentified this space-occupying lesion as malakoplakia and not cancer. Immunohistochemistry showed that she had human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the esophagus, which indicates that infection was responsible for the malakoplakia. This is believed to be the first case of malakoplakia in the esophagus, and more importantly, we established that HPV infection was the initiator of esophageal malakoplakia.
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Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; 12: CD008650
Jurgens TM, Whelan AM, Killian L, Doucette S, Kirk S, Foy E

Preparations of green tea are used as aids in weight loss and weight maintenance. Catechins and caffeine, both contained in green tea, are each believed to have a role in increasing energy metabolism, which may lead to weight loss. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the role of green tea in weight loss have been published; however, the efficacy of green tea preparations in weight loss remains unclear.To assess the efficacy and safety of green tea preparations for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults.We searched the following databases from inception to specified date as well as reference lists of relevant articles: The Cochrane Library (Issue 12, 2011), MEDLINE (December 2011), EMBASE (December 2011), CINAHL (January 2012), AMED (January 2012), Biological Abstracts (January 2012), IBIDS (August 2010), Obesity+ (January 2012), IPA (January 2012) and Web of Science (December 2011). Current Controlled Trials with links to other databases of ongoing trials was also searched.RCTs of at least 12 weeks’ duration comparing green tea preparations to a control in overweight or obese adults.Three authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and quality, with differences resolved by consensus. Heterogeneity of included studies was assessed visually using forest plots and quantified using the I(2) statistic. We synthesised data using meta-analysis and descriptive analysis as appropriate; subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Adverse effects reported in studies were recorded.Due to the level of heterogeneity among studies, studies were divided into two groups; those conducted in Japan and those conducted outside Japan. Study length ranged between 12 and 13 weeks. Meta-analysis of six studies conducted outside Japan showed a mean difference (MD) in weight loss of -0.04 kg (95% CI -0.5 to 0.4; P = 0.88; I(2) = 18%; 532 participants). The eight studies conducted in Japan were not similar enough to allow pooling of results and MD in weight loss ranged from -0.2 kg to -3.5 kg (1030 participants) in favour of green tea preparations. Meta-analysis of studies measuring change in body mass index (BMI) conducted outside Japan showed a MD in BMI of -0.2 kg/m(2) (95% CI -0.5 to 0.1; P = 0.21; I(2) = 38%; 222 participants). Differences among the eight studies conducted in Japan did not allow pooling of results and showed a reduction in BMI ranging from no effect to -1.3 kg/m(2) (1030 participants), in favour of green tea preparations over control. Meta-analysis of five studies conducted outside Japan and measuring waist circumference reported a MD of -0.2 cm (95% CI -1.4 to 0.9; P = 0.70; I(2) = 58%; 404 participants). Differences among the eight studies conducted in Japan did not allow pooling of results and showed effects on waist circumference ranging from a gain of 1 cm to a loss of 3.3 cm (1030 participants). Meta-analysis for three weight loss studies, conducted outside Japan, with waist-to-hip ratio data (144 participants) yielded no significant change (MD 0; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.01). Analysis of two studies conducted to determine if green tea could help to maintain weight after a period of weight loss (184 participants) showed a change in weight loss of 0.6 to -1.6 kg, a change in BMI from 0.2 to -0.5 kg/m(2) and a change in waist circumference from 0.3 to -1.7 cm. In the eight studies that recorded adverse events, four reported adverse events that were mild to moderate, with the exception of two (green tea preparations group) that required hospitalisation (reported as not associated with the intervention). Nine studies reported on compliance/adherence, one study assessed attitude towards eating as part of the health-related quality of life outcome. No studies reported on patient satisfaction, morbidity or cost.Green tea preparations appear to induce a small, statistically non-significant weight loss in overweight or obese adults. Because the amount of weight loss is small, it is not likely to be clinically important. Green tea had no significant effect on the maintenance of weight loss. Of those studies recording information on adverse events, only two identified an adverse event requiring hospitalisation. The remaining adverse events were judged to be mild to moderate.
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Genetic and Lifestyle Causal Beliefs about Obesity and Associated Diseases among Ethnically Diverse Patients: A Structured Interview Study.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Public Health Genomics. 2012 Dec 12;
Sanderson SC, Diefenbach MA, Streicher SA, Jabs EW, Smirnoff M, Horowitz CR, Zinberg R, Clesca C, Richardson LD

Background: New genetic associations with obesity are rapidly being discovered. People’s causal beliefs about obesity may influence their obesity-related behaviors. Little is known about genetic compared to lifestyle causal beliefs regarding obesity, and obesity-related diseases, among minority populations. This study examined genetic and lifestyle causal beliefs about obesity and 3 obesity-related diseases among a low-income, ethnically diverse patient sample. Methods: Structured interviews were conducted with patients attending an inner-city hospital outpatient clinic. Participants (n = 205) were asked how much they agreed that genetics influence the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Similar questions were asked regarding lifestyle causal beliefs (overeating, eating certain types of food, chemicals in food, not exercising, smoking). In this study, 48% of participants were non-Hispanic Black, 29% Hispanic and 10% non-Hispanic White. Results: Over two-thirds (69%) of participants believed genetics cause obesity ‘some’ or ‘a lot’, compared to 82% for type 2 diabetes, 79% for heart disease and 75% for cancer. Participants who held genetic causal beliefs about obesity held more lifestyle causal beliefs in total than those who did not hold genetic causal beliefs about obesity (4.0 vs. 3.7 lifestyle causal beliefs, respectively, possible range 0-5, p = 0.025). There were few associations between causal beliefs and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions: Higher beliefs in genetic causation of obesity and related diseases are not automatically associated with decreased lifestyle beliefs. Future research efforts are needed to determine whether public health messages aimed at reducing obesity and its consequences in racially and ethnically diverse urban communities may benefit from incorporating an acknowledgement of the role of genetics in these conditions.
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Eating Disorders Part 4 – WARNING! Can be Triggering to those with Eating Disorders! I do not own this (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; “Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use ©weTV 2008 Secret Lives of Women


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