Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India: Drug Coverage and Compliance Post Eight Rounds of MDA.

Lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India: drug coverage and compliance post eight rounds of MDA.

Trop Doct. 2013 Jan; 43(1): 30-2
Sunish IP, Shriram AN, Sivan A, Kartick C, Saha BP, Vijayachari P

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is endemic in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, including the lone foci for a diurnally sub-periodic form of Wuchereria bancrofti in the Nancowry group of islands. A programme to eliminate LF was launched in 2004 by the Directorate of Health Services, Andaman and Nicobar Administration which involved a single annual mass drug administration (MDA) using diethylcarbamazine (DEC) with albendazole. So far, eight rounds of MDA have been implemented through the Public Health Care network. The pattern of antifilarial drug distribution and compliance achieved in the on-going LF elimination programme in these islands has been assessed. This is the first systematic effort undertaken in these remote islands to assess the coverage and compliance with the LF elimination programme. This study covered 900 households in each of the 3 districts. There were a largest number of side effects in the Nicobar district (6.4%). Non-consumption of drugs ranged from 18.6% (Nicobar) to 42% (North and Middle Andaman). A survey revealed that almost 95.3% of the respondents had heard about MDA from the drug distributors. Therefore, the distributors should be involved in programmes designed to educate the community at risk of acquiring filarial infection and the possible side effects of the drugs. HubMed – drug


Percutaneous needle aspiration in uncomplicated amebic liver abscess: a randomized trial.

Trop Doct. 2013 Jan; 43(1): 19-22
Bammigatti C, Ramasubramanian N, Kadhiravan T, Das AK

Amoebic liver abscess develops in less than 1% of patients with amoebaisis and metronidazole is the drug of choice for the treatment of amebic liver abscess. Abscesses of less than 5 cm can be treated with metronidazole alone. However, abscesses of more than 10 cm must undergo ultrasound guided percutaneous needle aspiration along with metronidazole. The role of percutaneous needle aspiration in abscesses of 5 to 10 cm is not clear. Fifty-seven patients with a solitary, right lobe, uncomplicated amoebic liver abscess of 5-10 cm were randomized to receive either metronidazole alone (control group; n = 29) or ultrasound guided percutaneous needle aspiration along with metronidazole (intervention group; n = 28). Although the resolution of pain and fever occurred earlier in the intervention group (27 h and 17 h, respectively) than the control group (48 h and 30 h, respectively), the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.16 and 0.48, respectively). There were no deaths during the study period and treatment failure, complications (rupture of abscess), days to normalization of leukocytosis and duration of hospitalization were similar in both groups. Ultrasound guided percutaneous needle aspiration along with metronidazole was no better than metronidazole alone in the management of uncomplicated, solitary, right lobe amoebic liver abscess of 5 to 10 cm. HubMed – drug


Linagliptin: A thorough Characterization beyond Its Clinical Efficacy.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2013; 4: 16
Sortino MA, Sinagra T, Canonico PL

Linagliptin, one of the five dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors available, has recently entered the market both in the US and in most European countries for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It presents a xanthine-based structure, and is characterized by unique pharmacokinetics, with non-linear profile, long terminal half-life allowing prolonged exposure to the drug. It is eliminated predominately through the intestinal tract and only minimally into urine, so that it can be administered, without any dose adjustment, in conditions of renal impairment. Linagliptin is effective in modifying all parameters of hyperglycemia either in monotherapy, or as add-on therapy, together with metformin or a sulfonylurea. It also exhibits a good tolerability profile with few side effects, absence (when used in monotherapy), or low risk (when in combination with a sulfonylurea) of hypoglycemia. More importantly it has a weight neutral effect. A comprehensive report of the literature on linagliptin is provided, paying attention in particular to preclinical studies, interactions with other drugs, safety and tolerability, and results obtained in animal models that highlight properties of linagliptin suggestive of potential additional uses. Particularly promising appear the data demonstrating a positive effect of linagliptin on metabolic dysfunction and renal and/or cardiovascular damage together with more recently reported effects of linagliptin on tissue repair and neuroprotection. HubMed – drug


Efficacy of alfuzosin after shock wave lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi.

Korean J Urol. 2013 Feb; 54(2): 106-10
Cho HJ, Shin SC, Seo do Y, Min DS, Cho JM, Kang JY, Yoo TK

We evaluated the efficacy of alfuzosin for the treatment of ureteral calculi less than 10 mm in diameter after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL).A randomized, single-blind clinical trial was performed prospectively by one physician between June 2010 and August 2011. A total of 84 patients with ureteral calculi 5 to 10 mm in diameter were divided into two groups. Alfuzosin 10 mg (once daily) and loxoprofen sodium 68.1 mg (as needed) were prescribed to group 1 (n=41), and loxoprofen sodium 68.1 mg (as needed) only was prescribed to group 2 (n=44). The drug administration began immediately after ESWL and continued until stone expulsion was confirmed up to a maximum of 42 days after the procedure.Thirty-nine of 41 (95.1%) patients in group 1 and 40 of 43 (93.0%) patients in group 2 ultimately passed stones (p=0.96). The number of ESWL sessions was 1.34±0.65 and 1.41±0.85 in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.33). The patients who required analgesics after ESWL were 8 (19.5%) in group 1 and 13 (30.2%) in group 2 (p=0.31). Visual analogue scale pain severity scores were 5.33±1.22 and 6.43±1.36 in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.056). The time to stone expulsion in groups 1 and 2 was 9.5±4.8 days and 14.7±9.8 days, respectively (p=0.005). No significant adverse effects occurred.The use of alfuzosin in combination with ESWL seems to facilitate stone passage and to reduce the time of stone expulsion but does not affect the stone-free rate. HubMed – drug