Lumbopelvic Manipulation in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome.

Lumbopelvic manipulation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

J Man Manip Ther. 2012 Aug; 20(3): 113-20
Crowell MS, Wofford NH

A recent clinical prediction rule (CPR) identified characteristics that may predict an immediate reduction in pain following lumbopelvic manipulation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The purpose of this single-arm cohort study was to replicate the proposed CPR in a different population and investigate changes in self-reported pain, hip range of motion, strength, and function immediately following lumbopelvic manipulation.Forty-four subjects (63·6% female; mean age 27·4 years) met inclusion criteria. Hip internal rotation range of motion, lower extremity strength using a handheld dynamometer, and single/triple hop tests were assessed prior to and immediately following a spinal manipulation. A global rating of change questionnaire was administered after testing and telephonically at 1 week. Paired t-tests compared pre- and post-manipulation range of motion, strength, and hop test limb symmetry indices (??=?0·05).Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a successful outcome measured by the numerical pain rating scale immediately following manipulation. Twenty-five of subjects experienced a successful outcome as measured by the global rating of change questionnaire at 1 week. No single individual or combination of predictor variables predicted a positive outcome immediately following the lumbopelvic manipulation (+likelihood ratio 0·7 with three of five predictor variables present). Statistically significant differences (P<0·05) were found in hip extension and abduction strength and hip internal rotation symmetry post-manipulation, but do not appear to be clinically meaningful.The previously identified CPR was not able to be replicated and no clinically meaningful changes in range of motion, strength, or function were apparent. Future research should focus on a comprehensive impairment-based treatment approach in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. HubMed – rehab

Selective Effects of Baclofen on Use-Dependent Modulation of GABAB Inhibition after Tetraplegia.

J Neurosci. 2013 Jul 31; 33(31): 12898-907
Barry MD, Bunday KL, Chen R, Perez MA

Baclofen is a GABAB receptor agonist commonly used to relief spasticity related to motor disorders. The effects of baclofen on voluntary motor output are limited and not yet understood. Using noninvasive transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation techniques, we examined electrophysiological measures probably involving GABAB (long-interval intracortical inhibition and the cortical silent period) and GABAA (short-interval intracortical inhibition) receptors, which are inhibitory effects mediated by subcortical and cortical mechanisms. We demonstrate increased active long-interval intracortical inhibition and prolonged cortical silent period during voluntary activity of an intrinsic finger muscle in humans with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) compared with age-matched controls, whereas resting long-interval intracortical inhibition was unchanged. However, long-term (?6 years) use of baclofen decreased active long-interval intracortical inhibition to similar levels as controls but did not affect the duration of the cortical silent period. We found a correlation between signs of spasticity and long-interval intracortical inhibition in patients with SCI. Short-interval intracortical inhibition was decreased during voluntary contraction compared with rest but there was no effect of SCI or baclofen use. Together, these results demonstrate that baclofen selectively maintains use-dependent modulation of largely subcortical but not cortical GABAB neuronal pathways after human SCI. Thus, cortical GABAB circuits may be less sensitive to baclofen than spinal GABAB circuits. This may contribute to the limited effects of baclofen on voluntary motor output in subjects with motor disorders affected by spasticity. HubMed – rehab

Reversal of long-term potentiation-like plasticity processes after motor learning disrupts skill retention.

J Neurosci. 2013 Jul 31; 33(31): 12862-9
Cantarero G, Lloyd A, Celnik P

Plasticity of synaptic connections in the primary motor cortex (M1) is thought to play an essential role in learning and memory. Human and animal studies have shown that motor learning results in long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity processes, namely potentiation of M1 and a temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, biochemical processes essential for LTP are also crucial for certain types of motor learning and memory. Thus, it has been speculated that the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after learning, indicative of how much LTP was used to learn, is essential for retention. Here we provide supporting evidence of it in humans. Induction of LTP-like plasticity can be abolished using a depotentiation protocol (DePo) consisting of brief continuous theta burst stimulation. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess whether application of DePo over M1 after motor learning affected (1) occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and (2) retention of motor skill learning. We found that the magnitude of motor memory retention is proportional to the magnitude of occlusion of LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, DePo stimulation over M1, but not over a control site, reversed the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity induced by motor learning and disrupted skill retention relative to control subjects. Altogether, these results provide evidence of a link between occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and retention and that this measure could be used as a biomarker to predict retention. Importantly, attempts to reverse the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after motor learning comes with the cost of reducing retention of motor learning. HubMed – rehab