Longitudinal Changes in Dietary Fat Intake and Associated Changes in Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ACCORD Trial.

Longitudinal changes in dietary fat intake and associated changes in cardiovascular risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes: The ACCORD trial.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Mar 12;
Kirk JK, Craven T, Lipkin EW, Katula J, Pedley C, O’Connor PJ, Margolis KL

AIMS: To measure dietary fat intake using the Puget Sound Eating Patterns (PEP) questionnaire, a validated 19-item food questionnaire, and to quantify how reduced dietary fat intake affects cardiovascular risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial including a subsample of 1781 Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) participants. Participants received dietary counseling to consume a reduced-fat diet. Outcome measures included HbA1c, fasting lipid profile, blood pressure, and weight. Longitudinal linear regression analyses were used to evaluate relationships between baseline and follow-up PEP scores and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: PEP scores decreased significantly from baseline to 12-month follow up with a mean difference of -0.09±0.39, P<0.001. All of the fat intake subscales showed significant improvement at 12 months from baseline. White race, female gender, and more hours per week of physical activity were correlated with a decline in PEP scores at 1-year. A longitudinal decrease in dietary fat intake was associated with significantly less weight gain at 12- and 36-months and lower serum triglycerides at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced fat intake as measured by a brief questionnaire was associated with significant improvement in some cardiovascular risk factors (triglycerides and weight), but not in others. HubMed – eating


Body talk among college men: Content, correlates, and effects.

Body Image. 2013 Mar 8;
Engeln R, Sladek MR, Waldron H

Though researchers are beginning to examine body-related talk in women (often referred to as fat talk), little work has examined how men talk about their bodies with peers. The two studies presented in this article explore body talk among U.S. college men. First, an online survey examined the frequency with which college men engage in negative body talk, the content of these conversations, and the body image variables associated with engaging in this type of talk. Negative body talk in men was associated with drive for muscularity, eating disordered behavior, and appearance investment. Study 2 experimentally examined the effects of hearing male peers engage in negative body talk. Hearing muscle talk or fat talk caused decreased state appearance self-esteem and increased state body dissatisfaction. The correlates and consequences of negative body talk among men appear no less troubling than those identified among women. HubMed – eating


Pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease. A comprehensive review.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013 Mar 11;
Santangelo G, Barone P, Trojano L, Vitale C

Pathological gambling (PG) and other Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs), such as hypersexuality, compulsive eating and buying, are often reported in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The prevalence of PG is 2.2%-7% in treated PD patients, which is higher than the background population rate. As other non motor symptoms in PD, PG is frequently under-reported by patients and caregivers and may be under-recognized by the treating physicians. Factors associated with PG include male sex, younger age or younger age at PD onset, personal or family history of substance abuse or ICD, a personality profile characterized by impulsiveness, and treatment with dopamine agonists (DA) more than with levodopa (l-dopa). The DA effect seems to be a class effect and not specific for any DA. Neurofunctional studies suggest that medication-induced downregulation of frontostriatal connections and upregulation of striatum might combine to induce impulsive behavior. A dysfunction of fronto-subcortical circuits in PD patients with PG is also supported by neuropsychological findings of impaired executive control and monitoring abilities. Management of ICDs in PD is complex, and until now only discontinuation and/or tapering of DA treatment seem to be an effective management strategy for ICDs in PD. There is no empirical evidence supporting the use of psychiatric drugs for PG such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. Data regarding the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS), particularly of subthalamic nucleus, on PG and ICDs in PD are still limited and sometimes conflicting since improvement of PG or new onset of PG after surgery have been reported. HubMed – eating


Eating Competence of College Students in an Introductory Nutrition Course.

J Nutr Educ Behav. 2013 Mar 9;
Brown LB, Larsen KJ, Nyland NK, Eggett DL

OBJECTIVE: Describe eating competence, a positive and flexible way of conceptualizing eating attitudes and behaviors, in students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course. METHODS: Online completion of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI) and self-assessment of eating disorder status by 557 students (343 ages 18-20 years and 180 ages 21-26 years; 377 females) at the beginning of 1 semester. Analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey adjusted tests were used. RESULTS: The mean ecSI score was 30.7 ± 0.29; 47.4% were classified as eating competent, or ecSI ? 32. Mean ecSI was higher for males than females (29.4 ± 0.95 vs 27.4 ± 0.77; P < .001). Mean ecSI was higher for students who never had an eating disorder, compared with those reporting current (32.0 ± 0.43 vs 22.9 ± 1.91; P < .001) or past (28.8 ± 0.93; P < .01) eating disorders. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Students had limited eating competence, but a majority of males were eating competent. Students who had never had an eating disorder had higher eating competence than students with current or past disorders. Examining nutrition courses as currently taught may reveal ways courses could contribute to eating competence. HubMed – eating