Long Absence From Work Due to Sickness Among Psychiatric Outpatients in Japan, With Reference to a Recent Trend for Perfectionism.

Long Absence from Work Due to Sickness among Psychiatric Outpatients in Japan, with Reference to a Recent Trend for Perfectionism.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Iran J Public Health. 2012; 41(1): 17-27
Nakamura K, Seto H, Okino S, Ono K, Ogasawara M, Shibamoto Y, Agata T, Nakayama K

Sick leave from work due to psychiatric disorders is a major public health problem, not only in Japan but also worldwide. As males and females in Japan tend to differ in their approach to work, a gender difference in perfectionism might be expected. We investigated the background factors leading to long-term absence from work due to sickness among psychiatric outpatients in Japan.We surveyed 73 psychiatric outpatients who were absent from work for a long time (POAWs) and 228 employees without long-term sickness absence as controls. GHQ-30, NEO-FFI, MPS, RSS and questionnaires inquiring about background factors, including relationships with others, was used, and the data were compared between males and females.Male POAWs had a significantly higher tendency for depression and perfectionism than the controls, but in females this difference was not significant. With regard to personal relationships of POAWs, males had worse relationships with superiors and colleagues, whereas females had worse relationships with superiors, colleagues, and family.The data suggested that male workers exhibiting perfectionism tend to undertake too much work and become exhausted when trying to cope with complex human relationships in the workplace. Female workers having the double burden of family commitment and perfectionism tend to be isolated in terms of personal relationships, leading to exhaustion both in and outside the workplace.
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Predictors of Handgrip Strength among the Free Living Elderly in Rural Pahang, Malaysia.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Iran J Public Health. 2011 Dec; 40(4): 44-53
Moy F, Chang E, Kee K

Reduced handgrip strength is an aging process that significantly influences the living activities of elderly. It is linked to premature mortality, disability and other health complications among elderly. Therefore, we aim to determine the associated predictors with handgrip strength among the free living elderly in Malaysia.This was a cross sectional study conducted in a rural state in Malaysia. A total of 434 elderly individuals performed handgrip assessment. Socio-demographic characteristics, medical conditions, occupational history, functional ability (ADL) and depression (GDS) were enquired. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were also obtained.Majority of the respondents were Malays with mean age of 67.9 ± 6.3 years. Maximum handgrip strength of males and females were 28.8±9.2 kg and 18.9±6.9 kg respectively (P<0.05). The aborigines had significantly lower handgrip strength (P<0.05) compared to Malays, Chinese and Indians. Handgrip strength was positively correlated (P<0.05) with weight, height and ADL, while negatively associated (P<0.05) with GDS for both gender. In the multivariate linear regression analysis; weight, height and race significantly predicted handgrip strength among both male and female elderly after adjustment for all potential confounders. However, GDS and ADL were only found to significantly predict handgrip strength among the male elderly; while age was only significant among the females.Our sample population has significantly lower handgrip strength than the Western counterpart. Weight, height and race significantly predict handgrip strength among both male and female elderly. GDS, ADL are only found to be significant in males while age was only significant among the females. HubMed – depression


Clinical Pharmacology of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”): The Influence of Gender and Genetics (CYP2D6, COMT, 5-HTT).

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e47599
Pardo-Lozano R, Farré M, Yubero-Lahoz S, O’Mathúna B, Torrens M, Mustata C, Pérez-Mañá C, Langohr K, Cuyàs E, Carbó ML, de la Torre R

The synthetic psychostimulant MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) acts as an indirect serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine agonist and as a mechanism-based inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6). It has been suggested that women are more sensitive to MDMA effects than men but no clinical experimental studies have satisfactorily evaluated the factors contributing to such observations. There are no studies evaluating the influence of genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics (CYP2D6; catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT) and pharmacological effects of MDMA (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT; COMT). This clinical study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and physiological and subjective effects of MDMA considering gender and the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, COMT, and 5-HTT. A total of 27 (12 women) healthy, recreational users of ecstasy were included (all extensive metabolizers for CYP2D6). A single oral weight-adjusted dose of MDMA was administered (1.4 mg/kg, range 75-100 mg) which was similar to recreational doses. None of the women were taking oral contraceptives and the experimental session was performed during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Principal findings show that subjects reached similar MDMA plasma concentrations, and experienced similar positive effects, irrespective of gender or CYP2D6 (not taking into consideration poor or ultra-rapid metabolizers) or COMT genotypes. However, HMMA plasma concentrations were linked to CYP2D6 genotype (higher with two functional alleles). Female subjects displayed more intense physiological (heart rate, and oral temperature) and negative effects (dizziness, sedation, depression, and psychotic symptoms). Genotypes of COMT val158met or 5-HTTLPR with high functionality (val/val or l/*) determined greater cardiovascular effects, and with low functionality (met/* or s/s) negative subjective effects (dizziness, anxiety, sedation). In conclusion, the contribution of MDMA pharmacokinetics following 1.4 mg/kg MDMA to the gender differences observed in drug effects appears to be negligible or even null. In contrast, 5-HTTLPR and COMT val158met genotypes play a major role. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01447472.
HubMed – depression



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