Livestock-Associated Staphylococcus Aureus CC398: Animal Reservoirs and Human Infections.

Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus CC398: animal reservoirs and human infections.

Infect Genet Evol. 2013 Mar 5;
Verkade E, Kluytmans J

Over the past 15 years the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has changed significantly. Being initially a nosocomial pathogen, other clones have been detected in the community, leading to infections in relatively young and healthy individuals lacking contact with healthcare. More recently, a specific clone of MRSA CC398 emerged, which has spread extensively in livestock animals and is also found in retail meat. People in contact with food production animals are at high risk of colonization. The ways in which MRSA CC398 can be transmitted to humans are direct contact with animals, environmental contamination, and eating or handling contaminated meat. The role of MRSA CC398 as a food pathogen needs further research. Recently, whole genome sequencing and other genetic analyses have shown that livestock-associated strains are distinct from human-derived strains. However, there is also an exchange of strains between the reservoirs. Livestock-associated and human-associated strains of CC398 share some virulence factors, but there are also distinct virulence factors that appear to be important in host adaptation. Exchange of genes encoding these virulence factors between strains may expand the host range and thereby threaten public health. Since the emergence of MRSA CC398 in humans, approximately 10 years ago, this clone has shown a remarkable evolution, which is described in this review. HubMed – eating


Effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on some risk for developing type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis on controlled clinical trials.

Nutrition. 2013 Mar 5;
Shirani F, Salehi-Abargouei A, Azadbakht L

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating pattern may contribute to managing risk factors of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examine the effects of DASH diet consumption on the indices of glycemic control such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum fasting insulin level, and Homeostatic Model Assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, Science direct, ISI web of science, and Google Scholar for RCTs until July 2012. In total we found 20 articles that examine the effect of DASH diet on FBG (n = 9), fasting insulin (n = 7) and HOMA-IR (n = 4) met the inclusion criteria, respectively. RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that the DASH diet can significantly reduce fasting insulin concentration (mean difference -0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.22 to -0.08; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis based on the study period showed that the DASH diet could significantly reduce fasting insulin levels when prescribed for more than 16 wk (mean difference -0.16; 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.08; P < 0.001). Meta-analysis could not show a beneficial effect of the DASH diet on FBG (mean difference -0.26; 95% CI, -0.56 to 0.05; P = 0.1), and HOMA-IR (mean difference -0.26; 95% CI, -0.56 to 0.05; P = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: The DASH dietary pattern may lead to an improvement in insulin sensitivity independent of weight loss. The DASH diet may play an important role in glycemic control in long- term interventions. Additional prospective studies regarding the association between DASH diet and risks for type 2 diabetes are necessary. HubMed – eating


Fish intake during pregnancy and the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis – longitudinal evidence from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

Br J Nutr. 2013 Mar 8; 1-13
Maslova E, Strøm M, Oken E, Campos H, Lange C, Gold D, Olsen SF

Maternal fish intake during pregnancy may influence the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis, yet evidence is conflicting on its association with these outcomes. We examined the associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis. Mothers in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n 28 936) reported their fish intake at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined the associations of fish intake with child wheeze, asthma and rhinitis assessed at several time points: ever wheeze, recurrent wheeze (>3 episodes), ever asthma and allergic rhinitis, and current asthma, assessed at 18 months (n approximately 22 000) and 7 years (n approximately 17 000) using self-report and registry data on hospitalisations and prescribed medications. Compared with consistently high fish intake during pregnancy (fish as a sandwich or hot meal ? 2-3 times/week), never eating fish was associated with a higher risk of child asthma diagnosis at 18 months (OR 1·30, 95 % CI 1·05, 1·63, P= 0·02), and ever asthma by hospitalisation (OR 1·46, 95 % CI 0·99, 2·13, P= 0·05) and medication prescription (OR 1·37, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·71, P= 0·01). A dose-response was present for asthma at 18 months only (P for trend = 0·001). We found no associations with wheeze or recurrent wheeze at 18 months or with allergic rhinitis. The results suggest that high (v. no) maternal fish intake during pregnancy is protective against both early and ever asthma in 7-year-old children. HubMed – eating


Expanding Children’s Food Experiences: The Impact of a School-Based Kitchen Garden Program.

J Nutr Educ Behav. 2013 Mar; 45(2): 137-46
Gibbs L, Staiger PK, Johnson B, Block K, Macfarlane S, Gold L, Kulas J, Townsend M, Long C, Ukoumunne O

Evaluate achievement of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program in increasing child appreciation of diverse, healthy foods.Comparative 2-year study.Six program and 6 comparison primary schools in rural and metropolitan Victoria, Australia, matched for socioeconomic status and size.A total of 764 children in grades 3 to 6 (8-12 years of age) and 562 parents recruited. Retention rates at follow-up included 85% children and 75% parents.Each week of the school year, children spent 45 to 60 minutes in a garden class and 90 minutes in a kitchen class.Program impact on children’s willingness to try new foods, capacity to describe foods, and healthy eating.Qualitative data analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Quantitative data analyzed using random-effects linear regressions adjusted for school clustering.Child and parent qualitative and quantitative measures (if never tried before, odds ratio 2.0; confidence interval, 1.06-3.58) showed increases in children’s reported willingness to try new foods. No differences in articulation of food descriptions (program vs comparison groups). Qualitative evidence showed that the program extended its influence to healthy eating, but this was not reflected in the quantitative evidence.Findings indicate program success in achieving its primary objective, meriting further program research. HubMed – eating


The association of breakfast skipping and television viewing at breakfast with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries; the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sectional study.

Public Health Nutr. 2013 Mar 11; 1-9
Bjørnarå HB, Vik FN, Brug J, Manios Y, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Jan N, Maes L, Moreno LA, Dössegger A, Bere E

OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to assess the relationship of breakfast skipping, television (TV) viewing at breakfast and breakfast without TV with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey assessed breakfast eating and TV viewing at breakfast by three frequency questions and parents were categorized into: (i) breakfast skippers; (ii) breakfast with TV (TV watchers at breakfast); and (iii) breakfast without TV (breakfast eaters who do not watch TV during breakfast). Self-reported weight and height were used to categorize weight status as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with weight status as the dependent variable and breakfast habits as predictors, adjusting for sex, ethnicity and level of education. SETTING: The survey was conducted in 2010 in 199 primary schools across eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Parents (n 6512) of 10-12-year-olds responded to the questionnaire. RESULTS: In the total study sample, with breakfast without TV as the reference group and adjusting for sex, ethnicity and level of education, the OR of being respectively overweight or obese (compared with normal weight) was 1·2 (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4) or 1·8 (95 % CI 1·5, 2·3) for breakfast skippers. The OR of being respectively underweight or obese was 0·5 (95 % CI 0·2, 0·9) or 1·4 (95 % CI 1·1, 1·8) for breakfast with TV. CONCLUSIONS: Breakfast skippers were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese, and those eating breakfast while watching TV were significantly more likely to be obese and less likely to be underweight. HubMed – eating