Leptin in Pediatrics: A Hormone From Adipocyte That Wheels Several Functions in Children.

Leptin in pediatrics: A hormone from adipocyte that wheels several functions in children.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec; 16(Suppl 3): S577-87
Soliman AT, Yasin M, Kassem A

The protein leptin, a pleiotropic hormone regulates appetite and energy balance of the body and plays important roles in controlling linear growth, pubertal development, cardiovascular function, and immunity. Recent findings in the understanding of the structure, functional roles, and clinical significance of conditions with increased and decreased leptin secretion are summarized. Balance between leptin and other hormones is significantly regulated by nutritional status. This balance influences many organ systems, including the brain, liver, and skeletal muscle, to mediate the essential adaptation process. The aim of this review is to summarize the possible physiological functions of leptin and its signaling pathways during childhood and adolescence including control of food intake, energy regulation, growth and puberty, and immunity. Moreover, its secretion and possible roles in the adaptation process during different disease states (obesity, malnutrition, eating disorders, delayed puberty, congenital heart diseases and hepatic disorders) are discussed. The clinical manifestations and the successful management of patients with genetic leptin deficiency and the application of leptin therapy in other diseases including lipodystrophy, states with severe insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus are discussed. HubMed – eating


Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context – Analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control.

Pan Afr Med J. 2013; 14: 59
Seef S, Jeppsson A

A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as “swine flu”, since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term “swine flu” to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: “Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them,” wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt. HubMed – eating


Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e60407
Martire SI, Holmes N, Westbrook RF, Morris MJ

Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow.Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow) for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions.Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights.Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain. HubMed – eating


Shift Work or Food Intake during the Rest Phase Promotes Metabolic Disruption and Desynchrony of Liver Genes in Male Rats.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e60052
Salgado-Delgado RC, Saderi N, Basualdo Mdel C, Guerrero-Vargas NN, Escobar C, Buijs RM

In the liver, clock genes are proposed to drive metabolic rhythms. These gene rhythms are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) mainly by food intake and via autonomic and hormonal pathways. Forced activity during the normal rest phase, induces also food intake, thus neglecting the signals of the SCN, leading to conflicting time signals to target tissues of the SCN. The present study explored in a rodent model of night-work the influence of food during the normal sleep period on the synchrony of gene expression between clock genes and metabolic genes in the liver. Male Wistar rats were exposed to forced activity for 8 h either during the rest phase (day) or during the active phase (night) by using a slow rotating wheel. In this shift work model food intake shifts spontaneously to the forced activity period, therefore the influence of food alone without induced activity was tested in other groups of animals that were fed ad libitum, or fed during their rest or active phase. Rats forced to be active and/or eating during their rest phase, inverted their daily peak of Per1, Bmal1 and Clock and lost the rhythm of Per2 in the liver, moreover NAMPT and metabolic genes such as Ppar? lost their rhythm and thus their synchrony with clock genes. We conclude that shift work or food intake in the rest phase leads to desynchronization within the liver, characterized by misaligned temporal patterns of clock genes and metabolic genes. This may be the cause of the development of the metabolic syndrome and obesity in individuals engaged in shift work. HubMed – eating



Seeing the Unseen: Understanding Adolescent Eating Disorders – Adolescent eating disorders affect 200000-400000 young people in the Uk across genders, we are researching how eating disorders present in adolescent boys …