Issues in Localization of Brain Function: The Case of Lateralized Frontal Cortex in Cognition, Emotion, and Psychopathology.

Issues in localization of brain function: The case of lateralized frontal cortex in cognition, emotion, and psychopathology.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Front Integr Neurosci. 2013; 7: 2
Miller GA, Crocker LD, Spielberg JM, Infantolino ZP, Heller W

The appeal of simple, sweeping portraits of large-scale brain mechanisms relevant to psychological phenomena competes with a rich, complex research base. As a prominent example, two views of frontal brain organization have emphasized dichotomous lateralization as a function of either emotional valence (positive/negative) or approach/avoidance motivation. Compelling findings support each. The literature has struggled to choose between them for three decades, without success. Both views are proving untenable as comprehensive models. Evidence of other frontal lateralizations, involving distinctions among dimensions of depression and anxiety, make a dichotomous view even more problematic. Recent evidence indicates that positive valence and approach motivation are associated with different areas in the left-hemisphere. Findings that appear contradictory at the level of frontal lobes as the units of analysis can be accommodated because hemodynamic and electromagnetic neuroimaging studies suggest considerable functional differentiation, in specialization and activation, of subregions of frontal cortex, including their connectivity to each other and to other regions. Such findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of functional localization that accommodates aspects of multiple theoretical perspectives.
HubMed – depression


Recalled peer relationship experiences and current levels of self-criticism and self-reassurance.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Psychol Psychother. 2013 Mar; 86(1): 33-51
Kopala-Sibley DC, Zuroff DC, Leybman MJ, Hope N

Objectives. Numerous studies have shown that personality factors may increase or decrease individuals’ vulnerability to depression, but little research has examined the role of peer relationships in the development of these factors. Accordingly, this study examined the role of recalled parenting and peer experiences in the development of self-criticism and self-reassurance. It was hypothesized that, controlling for recalled parenting behaviours, specific recalled experiences of peer relationships would be related to current levels of specific forms of self-criticism and self-reassurance. Design. Hypotheses were tested using a retrospective design in which participants were asked to recall experiences of parenting and peer relationships during early adolescence. This age was chosen as early adolescence has been shown to be a critical time for the development of vulnerability to depression. Methods. A total of 103 female and 97 male young adults completed measures of recalled parenting, overt and relational victimization and prosocial behaviour by peers, and current levels of self-criticism and self-reassurance. Results. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that parents and peers independently contributed to the development of self-criticism and self-reassurance. Specifically, controlling for parental care and control, overt victimization predicted self-hating self-criticism, relational victimization predicted inadequacy self-criticism, and prosocial behaviour predicted self-reassurance. As well, prosocial behaviour buffered the effect of overt victimization on self-reassurance. Conclusions. Findings highlight the importance of peers in the development of personality risk and resiliency factors for depression, and suggest avenues for interventions to prevent the development of depressive vulnerabilities in youth. PRACTITIONER POINTS: •? The nature of a patient’s personality vulnerability to depression may be better understood through a consideration of the patient’s relationships with their peers as well as with parents during adolescence. •? An understanding of adult patients’ past peer relationships may further the therapist’s understanding of the client’s core schemas and dysfunctional attitudes, as well as potential transference reactions during therapy. •? Identifying and helping youth to better cope with peer victimization may help prevent the development of a vulnerable personality style in adulthood. •? Fostering positive peer relationships in adolescence may buffer the effects of other more negative relationships with peers.
HubMed – depression


Depression, physical activity, energy consumption, and quality of life in OSA patients before and after CPAP treatment.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Sleep Breath. 2013 Feb 6;
Diamanti C, Manali E, Ginieri-Coccossis M, Vougas K, Cholidou K, Markozannes E, Bakakos P, Liappas I, Alchanatis M

BACKGROUND: A variety of studies have demonstrated improvement in quality of life and depressive symptoms in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. However, very little is known about the effect of OSA treatment on physical activity and energy consumption. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in depression, physical activity, energy expenditure, and quality of life (QoL) in OSA patients before and after CPAP therapy. METHODS: Forty-one patients with OSA as revealed by polysomnography, were included to the study. They responded to the generic World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL) questionnaire, to the specific-disease Quebec Sleep Questionnaire, and to Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in order to evaluate QoL and the incidence of depression. In addition, all patients wore an accelerometer which measured physical activity and energy expenditure during a week. At least 6 months after initiation of CPAP treatment (mean time, 9 months) we re-examined 24 patients who met the compliance with the treatment criteria. RESULTS: Patients after CPAP therapy had significantly higher scores in all domains of the Quebec Sleep Questionnaire and in the domains of physical health/level of independence and psychological health/spirituality of the WHOQoL. Depression scores were also better in CES-D after treatment. However, despite the improvement in QoL and psychological status, CPAP therapy had no impact on physical activity and energy expenditure. CONCLUSIONS: CPAP therapy improves QoL and lessens depressive symptoms in our group of well-treated OSA patients. However, physical activity and energy expenditure did not present statistically significant improvement in the same group of OSA patients.
HubMed – depression


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