Isotopic Evidence of Early Hominin Diets.

Isotopic evidence of early hominin diets.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 3;
Sponheimer M, Alemseged Z, Cerling TE, Grine FE, Kimbel WH, Leakey MG, Lee-Thorp JA, Manthi FK, Reed KE, Wood BA, Wynn JG

Carbon isotope studies of early hominins from southern Africa showed that their diets differed markedly from the diets of extant apes. Only recently, however, has a major influx of isotopic data from eastern Africa allowed for broad taxonomic, temporal, and regional comparisons among hominins. Before 4 Ma, hominins had diets that were dominated by C3 resources and were, in that sense, similar to extant chimpanzees. By about 3.5 Ma, multiple hominin taxa began incorporating (13)C-enriched [C4 or crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)] foods in their diets and had highly variable carbon isotope compositions which are atypical for African mammals. By about 2.5 Ma, Paranthropus in eastern Africa diverged toward C4/CAM specialization and occupied an isotopic niche unknown in catarrhine primates, except in the fossil relations of grass-eating geladas (Theropithecus gelada). At the same time, other taxa (e.g., Australopithecus africanus) continued to have highly mixed and varied C3/C4 diets. Overall, there is a trend toward greater consumption of (13)C-enriched foods in early hominins over time, although this trend varies by region. Hominin carbon isotope ratios also increase with postcanine tooth area and mandibular cross-sectional area, which could indicate that these foods played a role in the evolution of australopith masticatory robusticity. The (13)C-enriched resources that hominins ate remain unknown and must await additional integration of existing paleodietary proxy data and new research on the distribution, abundance, nutrition, and mechanical properties of C4 (and CAM) plants. HubMed – eating


Psychotropic Drug Treatment in Anorexia Nervosa. Search for Differences in Efficacy/Tolerability Between Adolescent and Mixed-age Population.

Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2013 Jun 4;
Balestrieri M, Oriani MG, Simoncini A, Bellantuono C

BACKGROUND: During the last 10?years, the use of psychotropic medications in youth with psychiatric disorders, including eating disorders, has significantly increased, but their role in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to review the literature on the use of antidepressants and antipsychotics in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, comparing the efficacy and tolerability in this population with those reported in trials with patients not selected by age. METHOD: A systematic review of the available literature published so far. RESULTS: Only few studies met the selection criteria. No strong evidence of beneficial effects was found in using antidepressants and antipsychotics neither in adults nor in adolescents. Side effects were more frequently reported in studies including adolescent population. Among psychotropic drugs, the majority of studies focused on olanzapine, which seems to have, in some studies, only positive effects on body mass index, eating disorder symptoms and functional impairment in both age groups. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. HubMed – eating


Lack of pattern of birth in patients with bulimia nervosa.

Int J Eat Disord. 2013 Jun 3;
Vellisca MY, Latorre JI, Santed MA, Reales JM, Orejudo S, Cañete M

OBJECTIVE: An excess of bulimia nervosa (BN) births during the fall has been recently reported, but this finding has not been yet adequately replicated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the presence of a seasonal birth pattern in a representative clinical sample of women with BN. METHOD: We registered the month of birth of 216 female patients who fulfilled all the criteria for BN according to DSM-IV on admission to a specialized eating disorders service in Spain. RESULTS: Our analyses showed no significant variation in the season of birth of our BN sample when compared to a general population. DISCUSSION: Our data do not support the hypothesis of a season of birth bias in BN. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2013). HubMed – eating


A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

Trop Anim Health Prod. 2013 Jun 5;
Wilson RT, Swai E

The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7 % of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5 % of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania’s livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. HubMed – eating


Altered Insula Response to Sweet Taste Processing After Recovery From Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa.

Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Jun 4;
Oberndorfer TA, Frank GK, Simmons AN, Wagner A, McCurdy D, Fudge JL, Yang TT, Paulus MP, Kaye WH

OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that altered function of higher-order appetitive neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa and overeating in bulimia nervosa. This study used sweet tastes to interrogate gustatory neurocircuitry involving the anterior insula and related regions that modulate sensory-interoceptive-reward signals in response to palatable foods. METHOD Participants who had recovered from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied to avoid confounding effects of altered nutritional state. Functional MRI measured brain response to repeated tastes of sucrose and sucralose to disentangle neural processing of caloric and noncaloric sweet tastes. Whole-brain functional analysis was constrained to anatomical regions of interest. RESULTS Relative to matched comparison women (N=14), women recovered from anorexia nervosa (N=14) had significantly diminished and women recovered from bulimia nervosa (N=14) had significantly elevated hemodynamic response to tastes of sucrose in the right anterior insula. Anterior insula response to sucrose compared with sucralose was exaggerated in the recovered group (lower in women recovered from anorexia nervosa and higher in women recovered from bulimia nervosa). CONCLUSIONS The anterior insula integrates sensory reward aspects of taste in the service of nutritional homeostasis. One possibility is that restricted eating and weight loss occur in anorexia nervosa because of a failure to accurately recognize hunger signals, whereas overeating in bulimia nervosa could represent an exaggerated perception of hunger signals. This response may reflect the altered calibration of signals related to sweet taste and the caloric content of food and may offer a pathway to novel and more effective treatments. HubMed – eating



What to expect during treatment in the Eating Disorders Unit: Madi O’Dell’s story – Madi O’Dell and her mom, Sue, describe their experience with Children’s Hospital Colorado’s Eating Disorders Unit. Madi was a patient in the unit and was suc…