Isolating Behavioural Economic Indices of Demand in Relation to Nicotine Dependence.

Isolating behavioural economic indices of demand in relation to nicotine dependence.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Nov 15;
Chase HW, Mackillop J, Hogarth L

RATIONALE: Characterisation of drug dependence using principles from behavioural economics has provided a more detailed understanding of the disorder. Although questionnaires assessing economic demand for cigarettes have extended these principles to nicotine addiction, aspects of the reliability and selectivity of these questionnaires remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Across two experiments, we attempted to reproduce significant associations of the cigarette purchase task with nicotine dependence in a young adult population of smokers and contrasted this measure with a novel chocolate purchase task. We also examined the association between these measures and performance on a preference task, measuring preference for cigarettes and chocolate. METHODS: Questionnaire measures were used within a university setting. RESULTS: In experiment 1, we observed associations between nicotine dependence and measures of behavioural economic demand for cigarettes, particularly O (max). In experiment 2, we replicated these findings again and extended them to show that similar correlations between nicotine dependence and demand for chocolate were not observed. Moreover, the indices of demand and choices on a concurrent choice cigarette task were moderately associated with each other and independently associated with nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS: The two experiments clearly supported previous findings regarding the association between nicotine dependence and economic demand for cigarettes. We extend these observations by showing that the generalisation of economic demand across different commodities is relatively weak, but that generalisation across different procedures is strong. Our results therefore support behavioural economic models of nicotine addiction which emphasise a robust proximal role for the incentive value of cigarettes.
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[Evidence based addiction therapy – a challenge in many areas].

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2012 Dec; 80(12): 683
Hillemacher T

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Reliability and Validity of Chinese Version of the Addiction Severity Index among Drug Users in the Community.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Biomed Environ Sci. 2012 Dec; 25(6): 684-9
Luo W, Guo CX, Han de L, Li ZJ

To assess the reliability and validity of a new Chinese version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-C) in drug users in the community.Three hundred and eighty-one drug users in the community in Chengdu, Sichuan province were recruited. They were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of the ASI-C revised on the basis of the previous Chinese version and 38 were interviewed for the second time at an interval of 7 days to evaluate test-retest reliability.Cronbach’s ? coefficients for the internal consistency of the scale varied from 0.49 to 0.86. Test-retest correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.93. Criterion validity was found acceptable, as compared with the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90).The ASI-C presented acceptable reliability and validity in a sample of drug users in the community.
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Factors associated with immune status in the diagnosis of HIV infection.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Int AIDS Soc. 2012; 15(6): 18210
Cardoso S, Figueiredo C, Santos A, Poínhos R, Piñeiro C, Xerinda S, Soares J, Marques R, Serrão R, Sarmento A

Introduction: Current guidelines recommend the start of antiretroviral therapy before advanced immunosuppression, which is not always possible. The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors associated with the degree of immunosuppression at the diagnosis of HIV infection. Methods: We evaluated demographic and epidemiological data of HIV-infected patients observed at the Department of Infectious Diseases diagnosed between 2006-2011, and analyzed the relationship between these data and the immune status at diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0 for Windows. Results: Data from 600 new patients were analyzed. 584 (97.3%) infected by HIV-1. 426 (71%) male. Mean age=42 years (SD=14). Risk factor for HIV infection: sexual in 548 patients (91.3%) (22.8% homo/bisexual). 153 (25.5%) patients had AIDS -defining illness. Origin of patients: general practitioner – 153 (25.5%), hospitalization in the Department of Infectious Diseases – 110 (18.3%), diagnostic screening after partner’s diagnosis – 69 (11.5%), hospital consultation – 68 (11 3%), emergency room – 61 (10.2%), anonymous diagnostic testing center – 46 (7.7%), other hospital inpatient services – 31 (5.2%), hospitalization in another hospital – 30 (5%), attempted blood donation – 15 (2.5%), drug addiction treatment center – 8 (1.3%), pregnancy screening – 3 (0.5%) and patient’s own initiative – 6 (1%). The mean CD4+ cell count was 319 cells/cmm (SD=274; range: 2-1416). Women were diagnosed at significantly higher CD4+ cell count levels (p=0.005), as well as younger patients (p<0.001). Homo/bisexual patients had CD4+ cell counts significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.001). There were differences in CD4+ cell count depending on the origin of the patients (p<0.001): patients diagnosed at anonymous diagnostic center, drug addiction treatment center, blood donors, pregnant women and coming on their own initiative, had higher CD4+ cell count levels (p<0.001). Patients admitted in the Department of Infectious Diseases were those with the lower CD4+ cell counts. No relationship was found between CD4+ cell count level and year of diagnosis. Conclusion: These results indicate the importance of early HIV screening even in individuals without a perceived risk of acquisition of this infection, so they can benefit from antiretroviral treatment before having advanced immunosuppression. HubMed – addiction


The impact of disruptive behavior disorder on substance use treatment outcome in adolescents.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Subst Abuse Treat. 2012 Dec 7;
Ryan SR, Stanger C, Thostenson J, Whitmore JJ, Budney AJ

The current study examined the impact of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) on substance use outcomes in an adolescent sample. Sixty-eight adolescents and their caregivers were randomized to one of two fourteen-week, outpatient treatments: Motivational Enhancement Therapy/Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MET/CBT)+Parent Management Training+Contingency Management (CM; experimental) and MET/CBT+Parent Drug Education (attention control). This study assessed abstinence, substance use, externalizing behavior, and parenting outcomes over five assessment periods for youth with DBD (DBD(+)) and without DBD (DBD(-)). Results showed DBD(+)/experimental adolescents reported fewer days of marijuana use than DBD(+)/control adolescents. Results also showed that parents of DBD(-) adolescents in the experimental condition reported significantly better parenting outcomes compared to DBD(-)/control. Substance abuse treatment for adolescents with DBD which includes a component such as contingency management and parent training has the potential to contribute to substance use outcomes. Such treatment strategies, however, should include additional support for parents.
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