Is “Loss of Control” Always a Consequence of Addiction?

Is “Loss of Control” Always a Consequence of Addiction?

Front Psychiatry. 2013; 4: 36
Griffiths MD

HubMed – addiction


Stress differentially alters mu opioid receptor density and trafficking in parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the female and male rat hippocampus.

Synapse. 2013 May 30;
Milner TA, Burstein SR, Marrone GF, Khalid S, Gonzalez AD, Williams TJ, Schierberl KC, Torres-Reveron A, Gonzales KL, McEwen BS, Waters EM

Stress differentially affects hippocampal dependent learning relevant to addiction and morphology in male and female rats. Mu opioid receptors (MORs), which are located in parvalbumin (PARV)-containing GABAergic interneurons and are trafficked in response to changes in the hormonal environment, play a critical role in promoting principal cell excitability and long-term potentiation. Here, we compared the effects of acute and chronic immobilization stress (AIS and CIS) on MOR trafficking in PARV-containing neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus in female and male rats using dual label immuno-electron microscopy. Following AIS, the density of MOR silver-intensified gold particles (SIGs) in the cytoplasm of PARV-labeled dendrites was significantly reduced in females (estrus stage). Conversely, AIS significantly increased the proportion of cytoplasmic MOR SIGs in PARV-labeled dendrites in male rats. CIS significantly reduced the number of PARV-labeled neurons in the dentate hilus of males but not females. However, MOR/PARV-labeled dendrites and terminals were significantly smaller in CIS females, but not males, compared to controls. Following CIS, the density of cytoplasmic MOR SIGs increased in PARV-labeled dendrites and terminals in females. Moreover, the proportion of near-plasmalemmal MOR SIGs relative to total decreased in large PARV-labeled dendrites in females. After CIS, no changes in the density or trafficking of MOR SIGs were seen in PARV-labeled dendrites or terminals in males. These data show that AIS and CIS differentially affect available MOR pools in PARV-containing interneurons in female and male rats. Furthermore, they suggest that CIS could affect principal cell excitability in a manner that maintains learning processes in females but not males. Synapse, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. HubMed – addiction


Fast and sensitive analysis of dermorphin and HYP(6) -dermorphin in equine plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Drug Test Anal. 2013 May 29;
Wang CC, Hartmann-Fischbach P, Krueger TR, Wells TL, Feineman AR, Compton JC

Dermorphin and HYP(6) -dermorphin are hepta-peptides and natural opioids originally isolated from the skin of South American frogs. They are more potent than morphine but less likely to produce drug tolerance and addiction. These properties make them ideal candidates for the doping of racehorses to enhance performance during competition. Dermorphin was recently classified as a Class I drug by Racing Commissioners International (RCI), indicating that it is a banned substance in equine athletes. To enforce this ban, a fast and sensitive method was developed for dermorphin and HYP(6) -dermorphin analysis in equine plasma. Equine plasma (2 ml) was extracted on a mixed mode cation exchange solid-phase column. After extraction, dermorphin and HYP(6) -dermorphin were separated and detected using a liquid chromatography (LC) triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry in positive multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. Each analysis was 3.5 min. Four MRM transitions were used for identification of each compound. The extraction procedure was efficient and the limits of detection (LOD) were 2 pg/ml and 10 pg/ml for dermorphin and HYP(6) -dermorphin, respectively. The method has good selectivity and precision. Results of stability studies showed that both analytes were stable at low temperature. This is the first report of dermorphin and HYP(6) -dermorphin analysis in equine plasma, which could be adopted as a regular screening or confirmation method for controlling the abuse of these compounds in equine sports. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. HubMed – addiction


Smoking addiction and the risk of upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer in a multicenter case-control study.

Int J Cancer. 2013 May 30;
Lee YC, Zugna D, Richiardi L, Merletti F, Marron M, Ahrens W, Pohlabeln H, Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Agudo A, Castellsague X, Betka J, Holcatova I, Kjaerheim K, Macfarlane GJ, Macfarlane TV, Talamini R, Barzan L, Canova C, Simonato L, Conway DI, McKinney PA, Thomson P, Znaor A, Healy CM, McCartan BE, Boffetta P, Brennan P, Hashibe M

While previous studies on tobacco and alcohol and the risk of upper-aerodigestive-tract (UADT) cancers have clearly shown dose-response relations with the frequency and duration of tobacco and alcohol, studies on addiction to tobacco smoking itself as a risk factor for UADT cancer have not been published, to our knowledge. The aim of this report is to assess whether smoking addiction is an independent risk factor or a refinement to smoking variables (intensity and duration) for UADT squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) risk in the multicenter case-control study (ARCAGE) in Western Europe. The analyses included 1,586 ever smoking UADT SCC cases and 1,260 ever smoking controls. Addiction was measured by a modified Fagerström score (first cigarette after waking up, difficulty refraining from smoking in places where it is forbidden, and cigarettes per day). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for UADT cancers with addiction variables were estimated with unconditional logistic regression. Among current smokers, the participants who smoked their first cigarette within 5 minutes of waking up were two times more likely to develop UADT SCC than those who smoked 60 minutes after waking up. Greater tobacco smoking addiction was associated with an increased risk of UADT SCC among current smokers (OR=3.83, 95% CI 2.56-5.73 for score of 3-7 vs. 0), but not among former smokers. These results may be consistent with a residual effect of smoking that was not captured by the questionnaire responses (smoking intensity and smoking duration) alone, suggesting addiction a refinement to smoking variables. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. HubMed – addiction



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