Investigating the Genetic Load of an Emblematic Invasive Species: The Case of the Invasive Harlequin Ladybird Harmonia Axyridis.

Investigating the genetic load of an emblematic invasive species: the case of the invasive harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

Ecol Evol. 2013 Apr; 3(4): 864-71
Tayeh A, Estoup A, Hufbauer RA, Ravigne V, Goryacheva I, Zakharov IA, Lombaert E, Facon B

Introduction events can lead to admixture between genetically differentiated populations and bottlenecks in population size. These processes can alter the adaptive potential of invasive species by shaping genetic variation, but more importantly, they can also directly affect mean population fitness either increasing it or decreasing it. Which outcome is observed depends on the structure of the genetic load of the species. The ladybird Harmonia axyridis is a good example of invasive species where introduced populations have gone through admixture and bottleneck events. We used laboratory experiments to manipulate the relatedness among H. axyridis parental individuals to assess the possibility for heterosis or outbreeding depression in F1 generation offspring for two traits related to fitness (lifetime performance and generation time). We found that inter-populations crosses had no major impact on the lifetime performance of the offspring produced by individuals from either native or invasive populations. Significant outbreeding depression was observed only for crosses between native populations for generation time. The absence of observed heterosis is indicative of a low occurrence of fixed deleterious mutations within both the native and invasive populations of H. axyridis. The observed deterioration of fitness in native inter-population crosses most likely results from genetic incompatibilities between native genomic backgrounds. We discuss the implications of these results for the structure of genetic load in H. axyridis in the light of the available information regarding the introduction history of this species. HubMed – depression


The Kubler-Ross model, physician distress, and performance reporting.

Nat Rev Urol. 2013 Apr 23;
Smaldone MC, Uzzo RG

Physician performance reporting has been proposed as an essential component of health-care reform, with the aim of improving quality by providing transparency and accountability. Despite strong evidence demonstrating regional variation in practice patterns and lack of evidence-based care, public outcomes reporting has been met with resistance from medical professionals. Application of the Kubler-Ross ‘five stages of grief’ model-a conceptual framework consisting of a series of emotional stages (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) inspired by work with terminally ill patients-could provide some insight into why physicians are reluctant to accept emerging quality-reporting mechanisms. Physician-led quality-improvement initiatives are vital to contemporary health-care reform efforts and applications in urology, as well as other medical disciplines, are currently being explored. HubMed – depression


Psychiatric Comorbidities and Alexithymia in Patients with Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Questionnaire Study in Turkey.

Am J Clin Dermatol. 2013 Apr 23;
Cömert A, Akba? B, K?l?ç EZ, Ak?n O, Gökçe E, Göktuna Z, Ta?kapan O

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the levels of anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with seborrheic dermatitis (SD) compared with healthy subjects. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the presence of alexithymia among patients and its association with these psychiatric comorbidities. METHODS: A total of 117 consecutive adult patients (66 male, 51 female) with SD and 95 age- and gender-matched healthy controls selected from the community (46 male, 49 female) were enrolled in the study. The demographic characteristics of the patients were recorded. The clinical severity of the disease was assessed according to the Seborrheic Dermatitis Area and Severity Index (SDASI) scoring system. Both patients and controls were evaluated by the validated Turkish versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26). RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the patient and control groups regarding the mean scores of depressive or obsessive-compulsive symptoms or alexithymia (all p > 0.05). However, anxiety scores in patients with SD were higher than in controls (p = 0.001). No significant relationship was present between anxiety and disease severity nor disease duration (p > 0.05). Thirty-eight patients with high anxiety scores were found to be more alexithymic (p = 0.000). CONCLUSION: SD is one of the inflammatory skin disorders that is known to be triggered or aggravated by stress. However, little scientific evidence exists to confirm this view. In addition, very limited data are available about the presence of the personality profiles leading to emotional dysregulation such as alexithymia and concurrent psychiatric disorders in patients with SD. Our study showed that anxiety levels were significantly higher in patients with SD compared with healthy controls but there was no significant association with alexithymia, depression, or obsessive-compulsive symptom levels. Dermatologists should be particularly vigilant to the possibility of concurrent psychiatric morbidity in patients with SD in order to improve patients’ well-being. HubMed – depression


Changes of Cytokine Profiles During Electroconvulsive Therapy in Patients With Major Depression.

J ECT. 2013 Apr 19;
Rotter A, Biermann T, Stark C, Decker A, Demling J, Zimmermann R, Sperling W, Kornhuber J, Henkel A

OBJECTIVES: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment of depression, but its mechanism of action still remains unknown. Some studies emphasize that epileptic seizures result in cerebral production of cytokines, including the cytokine network in association with the pathophysiology of depression. We hypothesized that depressed patients would show a dysregulated profile of peripheral cytokines before and after ECT treatment. METHODS: Fifteen hospitalized subjects with major depressive disorder were recruited. Human cytokine array IV was used to determine the profile of cytokines in the serum during the course of ECT. Positive results of the cytokine assay were verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Depressive symptoms were evaluated before and after ECT series. RESULTS: The signal intensity of eotaxin-3 and interleukin (IL)-5 changed statistically significantly between the first ECT and 24 hours after the last ECT. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between the signal intensities of eotaxin-3, bone morphogenetic protein 6, IL-5, and transforming growth factor-? and the severity of depression. The results of Cytoray assays were confirmed partly by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The changes of tumor necrosis factor ? in pre-post comparison of ECT and the correlation of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale score with tumor necrosis factor ?, IL-5, and bone morphogenetic protein 6 expression could be verified. Only the relative signal intensity of IL-16 correlated significantly with the clinically as well as electroencephalographically measurable seizure duration. CONCLUSION: Electroconvulsive therapy treatment seems to change the expression of various cytokines in relation to changes of affective states such as mood. Therefore, cytokines might play a specific role within the treatment and pathogenesis of affective disorders. HubMed – depression