Interventions for Tobacco Use Cessation in People in Treatment for or Recovery From Substance Abuse.

Interventions for tobacco use cessation in people in treatment for or recovery from substance abuse.

Cochrane Libr. 2012 Dec 1; 12: 1-10
Apollonio D, Philipps R, Bero L

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy offered concurrently with treatment for drug and alcohol addiction. HubMed – addiction


Fos expression induced by cocaine-conditioned cues in male and female rats.

Brain Struct Funct. 2013 Jul 6;
Zhou L, Pruitt C, Shin CB, Garcia AD, Zavala AR, See RE

Previous studies have shown that female rats exhibit different patterns of drug seeking during multiple phases of cocaine addiction when compared with males. However, the underlying mechanisms for these sex differences remain largely unknown. Here, we used a cocaine self-administration/reinstatement model to examine neuronal activation, as determined by Fos expression, following cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male and female rats. Fos expression revealed both similarities between sexes in some brain regions, as well as selective sexually dimorphic patterns. As compared to no cue control subjects, conditioned cues induced higher Fos expression in the Cg1 region of the anterior cingulate cortex, but lower expression in the nucleus accumbens in both males and females. Females exhibited higher Fos expression than males in multiple brain regions, including the agranular insular cortex, dorsal medial caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens shell, ventral tegmental area, dorsal subiculum, and ventral CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Notably, only Fos expression in the prelimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, basolateral amygdala, and ventral subiculum correlated positively with lever responding in response to conditioned cues across males and females. These findings indicate that while sexually dimorphic Fos activation does occur, the relationship between cue-induced cocaine seeking and neuronal activation may be similar for males and females in key brain regions of the relapse circuit. HubMed – addiction


Automating Ultrasonic Vocalization Analyses: The WAAVES Program.

J Neurosci Methods. 2013 Jul 4;
Reno JM, Marker B, Cormack LK, Schallert T, Duvauchelle CL

Human emotion is a crucial component of drug abuse and addiction. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) elicited by rodents are a highly translational animal model of emotion in drug abuse studies. A major roadblock to comprehensive use of USV data is the overwhelming burden to attain accurate USV assessment in a timely manner. One of the most accurate methods of analyzing USVs, human auditory detection with simultaneous spectrogram inspection, requires USV sound files to be played back 5% normal speed.WAAVES (WAV-file Automated Analysis of Vocalizations Environment Specific) is an automated USV assessment program utilizing MATLAB’s Signal and Image Processing Toolboxes in conjunction with a series of customized filters to separate USV calls from background noise, and accurately tabulate and categorize USVs as flat or frequency-modulated (FM) calls. In the current report, WAAVES functionality is demonstrated by USV analyses of cocaine self-administration data collected over 10 daily sessions.WAAVES counts are significantly correlated with human auditory counts (r(48)=0.9925; p<0.001). Statistical analyses used WAAVES output to examine individual differences in USV responses to cocaine, cocaine-associated cues and relationships between USVs, cocaine intake and locomotor activity.WAAVES output is highly accurate and provides tabulated data in approximately 0.4% of the time required when using human auditory detection methods.The development of a customized USV analysis program, such as WAAVES streamlines USV assessment and enhances the ability to utilize USVs as a tool to advance drug abuse research and ultimately develop effective treatments. HubMed – addiction



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