Interventions for Preventing or Reducing Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women.

Interventions for preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 2: CD009414
Jahanfar S, Janssen PA, Howard LM, Dowswell T

Domestic violence during pregnancy is a major public health concern. This preventable risk factor threatens both the mother and baby. Routine perinatal care visits offer opportunities for healthcare professionals to screen and refer abused women for effective interventions. It is, however, not clear which interventions best serve mothers during pregnancy and postpartum to ensure their safety.To examine the effectiveness and safety of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (19 June 2012), scanned bibliographies of published studies and corresponded with investigators.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-randomised controlled trials (e.g. where there was alternate allocation) investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence during pregnancy.Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data.We included nine trials with a total of 2391 women; however, for most outcomes very few studies contributed data and results were predominantly based on findings from single studies. There was evidence from one study that the total number of women reporting episodes of partner violence during pregnancy, and in the postpartum period was reduced for women receiving a psychological therapy intervention (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.88). There were few statistically significant differences between intervention and control groups for depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period. Only one study reported findings for neonatal outcomes such as preterm delivery and birthweight, and there were no clinically significant differences between groups. None of the studies reported results for other secondary outcomes: Apgar score less than seven at one minute and five minutes, stillbirth, neonatal death, miscarriage, maternal mortality, antepartum haemorrhage, and placental abruption.There is insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of interventions for domestic violence on pregnancy outcomes. There is a need for high-quality, RCTs with adequate statistical power to determine whether intervention programs prevent or reduce domestic violence episodes during pregnancy, or have any effect on maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity outcomes. HubMed – depression


Topical capsaicin (high concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 2: CD007393
Derry S, Sven-Rice A, Cole P, Tan T, Moore RA

Topical creams with capsaicin are used to treat peripheral neuropathic pain. Following application to the skin capsaicin causes enhanced sensitivity, followed by a period with reduced sensitivity and, after repeated applications, persistent desensitisation. High-concentration (8%) capsaicin patches were developed to increase the amount of capsaicin delivered; rapid delivery was thought to improve tolerability because cutaneous nociceptors are ‘defunctionalised’ quickly. The single application avoids noncompliance. Only the 8% patch formulation of capsaicin is available, with a capsaicin concentration about 100 times greater than conventional creams.High-concentration topical capsaicin is given as a single patch application to the affected part. It must be applied under highly controlled conditions, normally under local anaesthetic, due to the initial intense burning sensation it causes. The benefits are expected to last for about 12 weeks, when another application might be made.To review the evidence from controlled trials on the efficacy and tolerability of topically applied, high-concentration (8%) capsaicin in chronic neuropathic pain in adults.We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and to December 2012.Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of at least six weeks’ duration, using topical capsaicin to treat neuropathic pain.Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data on numbers of participants with pain relief (clinical improvement) after at least six weeks, and with local skin reactions. We calculated risk ratio and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) and harm (NNH). We sought details of definition of pain relief and specific adverse events.Efficacy outcomes reflecting long-duration pain relief after a single drug application were from the patient global impression of change (PGIC) at specific points, usually eight and 12 weeks. We regarded these outcomes as first-tier evidence. We regarded average pain scores over weeks 2 to 8 and 2 to 12 and the number and/or percentage of participants with pain intensity reduction of at least 30% or at least 50% over baseline as second-tier evidence.We included six studies, involving 2073 participants; they were of generally good reporting quality; the control was 0.04% topical capsaicin to help maintain blinding. Efficacy outcomes were inconsistently reported between studies, however, resulting in analyses for most outcomes being based on less than complete data.Four studies involved 1272 participants with postherpetic neuralgia. All efficacy outcomes were significantly better than control. At both eight and 12 weeks there was a significant benefit for high-concentration over low-concentration topical capsaicin for participants reporting themselves to be much or very much better, with point estimates of the NNTs of 8.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3 to 26) and 7.0 (95% CI 4.6 to 15) respectively. More participants had average 2 to 8-week and 2 to 12-week pain intensity reductions over baseline of at least 30% and at least 50% with active treatment than control, with NNT values between 10 and 12.Two studies involved 801 participants with painful HIV-neuropathy. In a single study the NNT at 12 weeks for participants to be much or very much better was 5.8 (95% CI 3.8 to 12). Over both studies more participants had average 2 to 12-week pain intensity reductions over baseline of at least 30% with active treatment than control, with an NNT of 11.Local adverse events were common, but not consistently reported. Serious adverse events were no more common with active treatment (4.1%) than control (3.2%). Adverse event withdrawals did not differ between groups, but lack of efficacy withdrawals were somewhat more common with control than active treatment, based on small numbers of events. No deaths were judged to be related to study medication.High-concentration topical capsaicin used to treat postherpetic neuralgia and HIV-neuropathy generates more participants with high levels of pain relief than does control treatment using a much lower concentration of capsaicin. The additional proportion who benefit over control is not large, but for those who do obtain high levels of pain relief there are additional improvements in sleep, fatigue, depression and an improved quality of life. High-concentration topical capsaicin is therefore similar to other therapies for chronic pain. In this case, the high cost of single and repeated applications suggest that high-concentration topical capsaicin is likely to be used when other available therapies have failed, and that it should probably not be used repeatedly without substantial documented pain relief. Even when efficacy is established, there are unknown risks, especially on epidermal innervation, of repeated application of long periods. HubMed – depression


Naloxone for opiate-exposed newborn infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 2: CD003483
Moe-Byrne T, Brown JV, McGuire W

Naloxone, a specific opiate antagonist, is available for the treatment of newborn infants with cardiorespiratory or neurological depression that may be due to intrauterine exposure to opiate. It is unclear whether newborn infants may benefit from this therapy and whether naloxone has any harmful effects.To determine the effect of naloxone as a treatment for newborn infants who have been exposed in utero to opiate.We searched the following databases in June 2012 for new studies published since the previous search in 2007: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (OvidSP), MEDLINE In process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO), Maternity and Infant Care (OvidSP) and PubMed. We searched for ongoing and completed trials in Clinical, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and the EU Clinical Trials Register. We checked the reference lists of relevant articles to identify further potentially relevant studies.Randomised controlled trials comparing the administration of naloxone versus placebo, or no drug, or another dose of naloxone to newborn infants with suspected or confirmed in utero exposure to opiate.We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors and synthesis of data using risk ratio, risk difference and weighted mean difference.We included nine trials that compared the effects of naloxone versus placebo or no drug in newborn infants exposed to maternal opiate analgesia prior to delivery. None of these trials specifically recruited infants with cardiorespiratory or neurological depression. The main outcomes reported were measures of respiratory function in the first six hours of life. There is some evidence that naloxone increases alveolar ventilation. The trials did not assess the effect on the primary outcomes of this review (admission to a neonatal unit and failure to establish breastfeeding).The existing evidence from randomised controlled trials is insufficient to determine whether naloxone confers any important benefits to newborn infants with cardiorespiratory or neurological depression that may be due to intrauterine exposure to opiate. Given concerns about the safety of naloxone in this context it may be appropriate to limit its use to randomised controlled trials that aim resolve these uncertainties. HubMed – depression