Interplay Between Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Growth Factors in Depressive Illnesses.

Interplay between pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in depressive illnesses.

Front Cell Neurosci. 2013; 7: 68
Audet MC, Anisman H

The development of depressive disorders had long been attributed to monoamine variations, and pharmacological treatment strategies likewise focused on methods of altering monoamine availability. However, the limited success achieved by treatments that altered these processes spurred the search for alternative mechanisms and treatments. Here we provide a brief overview concerning a possible role for pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in major depression, as well as the possibility of targeting these factors in treating this disorder. The data suggest that focusing on one or another cytokine or growth factor might be counterproductive, especially as these factors may act sequentially or in parallel in affecting depressive disorders. It is also suggested that cytokines and growth factors might be useful biomarkers for individualized treatments of depressive illnesses. HubMed – depression


Long-term fluoxetine treatment induces input-specific LTP and LTD impairment and structural plasticity in the CA1 hippocampal subfield.

Front Cell Neurosci. 2013; 7: 66
Rubio FJ, Ampuero E, Sandoval R, Toledo J, Pancetti F, Wyneken U

Antidepressant drugs are usually administered for several weeks for the treatment of major depressive disorder. However, they are also prescribed in several additional psychiatric conditions as well as during long-term maintenance treatments. Antidepressants induce adaptive changes in several forebrain structures which include modifications at glutamatergic synapses. We recently found that repetitive administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine to naïve adult male rats induced an increase of mature, mushroom-type dendritic spines in several forebrain regions. This was associated with an increase of GluA2-containing ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPA-Rs) in telencephalic postsynaptic densities. To unravel the functional significance of such a synaptic re-arrangement, we focused on glutamate neurotransmission in the hippocampus. We evaluated the effect of four weeks of 0.7 mg/kg fluoxetine on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the CA1 hippocampal subfield. Recordings in hippocampal slices revealed profound deficits in LTP and LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses associated to increased spine density and enhanced presence of mushroom-type spines, as revealed by Golgi staining. However, the same treatment had neither an effect on spine morphology, nor on LTP and LTD at perforant path-CA1 synapses. Cobalt staining and immunohistochemical experiments revealed decreased AMPA-R Ca(2+) permeability in the stratum radiatum (s.r.) together with increased GluA2-containing Ca(2+) impermeable AMPA-Rs. Therefore, 4 weeks of fluoxetine treatment promoted structural and functional adaptations in CA1 neurons in a pathway-specific manner that were selectively associated with impairment of activity-dependent plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. HubMed – depression


Health Related Quality of Life of Stroke Survivors: Experience of a Stroke Unit.

Int J Biomed Sci. 2012 Sep; 8(3): 183-187
Abubakar SA, Isezuo SA

Stroke has a major impact on survivors including Health related Quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL measurements are potentially more relevant to patients than measurements of impairments or disability and are an important index of outcome after stroke that can facilitate a broader description of disease and outcome. This study examined the factors associated with HRQoL of stroke survivors.In a cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design, 62 patients were prospectively enrolled and interviewed 3 months post stroke in neurology out-patient clinic. After case identification, functional status (handicap) was determined using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS), while Zung Depression Self-Rating Scale (ZDS) was used to determine presence of depression. HRQoL was assessed using the Stroke Impact Scale-16 (SIS-16). Age, sex, duration of formal education, depression and degree of disability were correlated with HRQoL in multiple logistic regressions.The mean age of patients was 54.4 ± 9.9 years. Mean duration of formal education was significantly higher in males than females (p value=0.007). About one third (29%) of the stroke survivors were depressed and more than half (54.8%) had good recovery. Function status measured by modified Rankin Scale and depression were independent determinants of poor HRQoL.Functional status and depression were identified as independent factors affecting HRQoL of stroke survivors. HubMed – depression


The Link between OSA and Depression: Another Reason for Integrative Sleep Medicine Teams.

J Clin Sleep Med. 2013; 9(5): 425-426
Haynes P

HubMed – depression


Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Subsequent Risk of Depressive Disorder: A Population-Based Follow-up Study.

J Clin Sleep Med. 2013; 9(5): 417-423
Chen YH, Keller JK, Kang JH, Hsieh HJ, Lin HC

Empirical findings on the prospective link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and subsequent depression are mixed. This nationwide, population-based study thus aimed at assessing the risk of depressive disorder within the first year following a diagnosis with OSA. Gender effects were further examined.Cohort study.Taiwan.This study used data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. A total of 2,818 patients diagnosed with OSA between 2002 and 2008 were evaluated, and 14,090 matched non-OSA enrollees used as a comparison cohort.Each patient was followed for one year to identify subsequent depressive disorder. We found that during the one-year follow-up, the incidence of depressive disorder per thousand person-years was about twice as high among patients with OSA (18.10, 95% CI = 13.62-23.61) as those without OSA (8.23, 95% CI = 6.83-9.84). The Cox proportional hazards model revealed that patients with OSA were independently associated with a 2.18 times (95% CI = 1.55-3.08) increased risk of subsequent depressive disorder within a year, compared to those without OSA. As epidemiological studies have consistently documented an increased risk for depression in women, we hypothesized and confirmed higher risks of depressive disorder among female patients with OSA (2.72, 95% CI = 1.68-4.40) than their male counterparts (1.81, 95% CI = 1.09-3.01).A prospective link between OSA and subsequent depressive disorder within one year was confirmed by the current study. The risk was particularly evident among women. Regular psychiatric screening among patients with OSA is suggested to prompt the timely detection of depression.A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 425.Chen YH; Keller JK; Kang JH; Hsieh HJ; Lin HC. Obstructive sleep apnea and the subsequent risk of depressive disorder: a population-based follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):417-423. HubMed – depression