[Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Work-Related Stress Depressive Disorders.]

[Interpersonal psychotherapy for work-related stress depressive disorders.]

Nervenarzt. 2013 Jun 29;
Schramm E, Berger M

In general work involves health promoting functions but can also have hazardous impacts on well-being. Due to a massive change in working conditions it has become increasingly more recognized that depressive disorders are highly prevalent at the workplace and that work stress belongs to the most common triggers of depressive disorders, particularly in men. It is relevant to differentiate between subjectively experienced burnout and clinical depression. The best investigated psychosocial work stressors include increased job demands in connection with low control possibilities and lack of gratification, interpersonal conflicts, role stress and social isolation. For the treatment of work-related clinical depression, an additional focus of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) of depression, namely “work-related stress and burnout experience” was conceptualized based on a vulnerability-stress model and the fact that work usually takes place in an interpersonal context. This new problem area focuses on role stress and conflicts at work and the reduction of stressful working conditions. Interpersonal psychotherapy has so far been useful for the treatment of depression due to problems at work; however, further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this newly designed problem area. HubMed – depression


Synaptic behavior and STDP of asymmetric nanoscale memristors in biohybrid systems.

Nanoscale. 2013 Jul 2;
Williamson A, Schumann L, Hiller L, Klefenz F, Hoerselmann I, Husar P, Schober A

We fabricate and characterize asymmetric memristors which show a very strong single-sided hysteresis. When biased in one direction there is hysteresis and in the opposite direction there is a lack of hysteresis. We demonstrate that this apparent lack is actually hysteresis on a much faster time-scale. We further demonstrate that this form of asymmetric behavior correlates very well to the asymmetric structure and function of an actual synapse. The asymmetric memristor device presented here is necessary to correctly implement spike-timing-dependent-plasticity STDP in mixed memristor/neuron hybrid systems as an artificial synapse. These devices show the required characteristics for implementing the asymmetric form of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of a synapse between two neurons, where symmetric memristor devices do not. Signals from a presynaptic neuron are sent via its axon across the synapse to the dendrite of a postsynaptic neuron. Postsynaptic neuron signals sent to subsequent neurons have an influence on the strength of any further presynaptic neuron signals received by the postsynaptic neuron across the synapse. These signals are grouped into spike triplets within the framework of STDP and, as we experimentally show here, can be implemented with asymmetric memristors, not standard symmetric memristors. HubMed – depression


Spinal cord injury-related chronic pain in victims of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake: a prospective cohort study.

Spinal Cord. 2013 Jul 2;
Wen H, Reinhardt JD, Gosney JE, Baumberger M, Zhang X, Li J

Study design:Prospective cohort.Objectives:To characterize spinal cord injury (SCI)-related pain and treatment in victims of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.Setting:Mianzhu County, China.Methods:Twenty-six patients who sustained SCI in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake and who were treated in the same hospital were enrolled. Data was collected on pain severity with a visual analog scale, depression with Patient Health Questionnaire-9, quality of life (QoL) with World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF and social participation with the Craig Hospital Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique Short Form at three assessment points. Detailed pain descriptions including therapeutic interventions were elicited at the fourth assessment. Pain determinants were analyzed with a longitudinal Tobit regression, and Pearson’s correlations of pain severity with depression, QoL and social participation stratified by measurement point were calculated.Results:SCI-related pain was highly prevalent and prevalence of neuropathic pain was nearly twice that of nociceptive pain. Most patients reported pain since the onset and severity was not significantly reduced over time. Cervical injury, complete lesions and education level were significant pain determinants. Depression and QoL scores were highly correlated with pain at the first two assessments points but not at the third measurement. Most patients did not seek treatment because they regarded pain as either a normal condition after SCI or were afraid of drug dependency.Conclusion:This initial longitudinal assessment and characterization of SCI-related pain in earthquake victims provides a foundation for further exploration of the biological and psychosocial determinants of pain severity and of the correlation of chronic pain with other outcomes of interest in this population. Patient pain-treatment-seeking behavior and therapeutic interventions should be evaluated concurrently.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 2 July 2013; doi:10.1038/sc.2013.59. HubMed – depression


Examining the relationship between health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury and the mental health of their caregivers in Colombia, South America.

Int J Rehabil Res. 2013 Jun 28;
Coleman JA, Harper LA, Perrin PB, Olivera SL, Perdomo JL, Arango JA, Arango-Lasprilla JC

Although considerable research has been carried out on family caregivers of individuals with various types of disabilities, spinal cord injury (SCI) caregivers have received considerably less attention in terms of research, especially in regions such as Latin America. This study examined the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with SCI and their family caregiver’s mental health in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty-four individuals with SCI and their primary caregivers (34 dyads; n=68) from the Foundation for the Integral Development of People with Disabilities in Neiva, Colombia, were included in this study. Individuals with SCI completed eight subscales of the SF-36 that assessed HRQOL. Five aspects of caregiver mental health were assessed, including burden (Zarit Burden Interview), satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory). A series of multiple regressions uncovered strong associations among the HRQOL of individuals with SCI and various aspects of caregiver mental health. In these regressions, patient physical functioning and pain were independently related to caregiver burden; patient pain and general health were independently related to caregiver satisfaction with life; and patient pain was independently related to caregiver anxiety. HRQOL in individuals with SCI was robustly related to their caregiver’s mental health, suggesting that the two sets of variables are closely linked. These findings suggest that caregiver mental health should be a central part of SCI rehabilitation interventions, especially in Latin America.Obwohl familienangehörige Pfleger/Betreuer von Personen mit verschiedenen Arten von Behinderung bereits intensiv erforscht wurden, haben Pfleger/Betreuer von Personen mit Rückenmarksverletzungen (SCI) wesentlich weniger Aufmerksamkeit erfahren, insbesondere in Regionen wie Lateinamerika. Die vorliegende Studie analysierte die Beziehung zwischen der gesundheitsbezogenen Lebensqualität (HRQOL) von SCI-Patienten und der mentalen Gesundheit ihrer familienangehörigen Pfleger/Betreuer in Neiva in Kolumbien. Insgesamt 34 Personen mit SCI und ihre Hauptbetreuer (34 Dyaden; n = 68) der Stiftung für die Integration von Menschen mit Behinderung in Neiva in Kolumbien wurden in diese Studie aufgenommen. Die Personen mit SCI schlossen acht Subskalen des SF-36 zur Beurteilung der HRQOL ab. Fünf Aspekte der mentalen Gesundheit der Pfleger/Betreuer wurden ausgewertet, darunter Belastung (Zarit Burden Interview), Zufriedenheit mit dem Leben (Satisfaction with Life-Skala), Depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), Selbstwertgefühl (Rosenberg Self-Esteem-Skala) und Angst (State Trait Angst-Inventar). Eine Reihe multipler Regressionen deckte starke Beziehungen bei der HRQOL der Personen mit SCI und verschiedenen Aspekten der mentalen Gesundheit des Pflegers/Betreuers auf. Bei diesen Regressionen wurden die körperliche Funktionsfähigkeit und der Schmerz der Patienten unabhängig mit der Belastung des Pflegers/Betreuers in Verbindung gebracht; der vom Patienten empfundene Schmerz und der allgemeine Gesundheitszustand wurden unabhängig mit der Zufriedenheit des Pflegers/Betreuers mit dem Leben in Verbindung gebracht; und schließlich wurde der vom Patienten empfundene Schmerz unabhängig mit der Angst des Pflegers/Betreuers in Verbindung gebracht. Die HRQOL der einzelnen Studienteilnehmer mit SCI wurde stark mit der mentalen Gesundheit des Pflegers/Betreuers in Verbindung gebracht, was den Schluss nahe legt, dass beide Sets mit Variablen eng miteinander verbunden sind. Diese Ergebnisse legen den Schluss nahe, dass die mentale Gesundheit des Pflegers/Betreuers eine zentrale Rolle bei der Rehabilitation von SCI-Patienten spielen sollte, insbesondere in Lateinamerika.A pesar de que se ha llevado a cabo un volumen considerable de investigación sobre los cuidadores familiares de individuos con varios tipos de discapacidades, los cuidadores de personas con lesión de la médula espinal (LME) han recibido menos atención al respecto, especialmente en zonas como América Latina. Este estudio examinó la relación entre la calidad de vida general relacionada con la salud (CVRS) en individuos con LME y la salud mental de sus cuidadores familiares en Neiva, Colombia. En el estudio participaron treinta y cuatro sujetos con LME y sus cuidadores familiares primarios (34 parejas; n=68), procedentes de la Fundación de Desarrollo Integral para Personas con Discapacidad de Neiva, Colombia. Los sujetos con LME completaron ocho subescalas del cuestionario SF-36 para la evaluación de CVRS. Se examinaron cinco aspectos de la salud mental de los cuidadores: carga (Entrevista de carga del cuidador de Zarit), satisfacción con la vida (Escala de satisfacción con la vida), depresión (Cuestionario sobre la salud del paciente-9), autoestima (Escala de autoestima de Rosenberg) y ansiedad (Escala de ansiedad estado-rasgo). Una serie de regresiones múltiples demostró la existencia de una sólida relación entre la CVRS de los individuos con LME y varios aspectos de la salud mental de sus cuidadores. En dichas regresiones, el funcionamiento físico y el dolor del paciente se encontraban relacionados de forma independiente con la carga del cuidador; el dolor y el estado general de salud del paciente se encontraban relacionados de forma independiente con la satisfacción con la vida del cuidador; y el dolor del paciente se encontraba relacionado de forma independiente con la ansiedad del cuidador. Se concluyó que la CVRS de individuos con LME está firmemente relacionada con la salud mental de sus cuidadores, deduciéndose así que los dos grupos de variables poseen una estrecha correlación. Dichos hallazgos sugieren que la salud mental de los cuidadores debería desempeñar un papel central en los programas de rehabilitación de LME, en particular en América Latina.Bien que de nombreuses recherches aient été menées sur les parents substituts soignants des personnes souffrant de divers types de handicaps, les substituts soignants dans le cas de lésions spinales acquises (LSA) ont reçu beaucoup moins d’attention en termes de recherche, en particulier dans des régions comme l’Amérique latine. La présente étude examine la relation entre la qualité de vie liée à la santé (QVLS) chez les personnes atteintes de LSA et la santé mentale de leurs parents soignants à Neiva, en Colombie. Trente-quatre personnes atteintes de LSA et leurs fournisseurs de soins primaires (34 dyades, n=68) de la Fondation pour le développement intégral des personnes handicapées à Neiva, en Colombie, ont été inclus dans cette étude. Les patients souffrant de LSA ont rempli huit sous-échelles du questionnaire SF-36 qui évaluent la QVLS. Cinq aspects de la santé mentale des substituts soignant ont été évalués, y compris le poids de la responsabilité/fardeau (entretien de Zarit Burden), la satisfaction de la vie (échelle de satisfaction de la vie), la dépression (questionnaire de santé patient-9), l’estime de soi (échelle d’estime de soi de Rosenberg) et l’anxiété (inventaire State Trait Anxiety). Une série de régressions multiples a révélé de fortes associations entre la QVLS des personnes atteintes de LSA et divers aspects de la santé mentale des soignants. Dans ces régressions, le fonctionnement physique et la douleur des patients étaient indépendamment liés au poids/fardeau ressenti par le soignant, la douleur et la santé générale du patient étaient indépendamment liés à la satisfaction de la vie des soignants, et la douleur du patient était indépendamment liée à l’anxiété du parent soignant. La QVLS chez les personnes atteintes LSA était solidement liée à la santé mentale de leurs soignants, ce qui suggère que les deux ensembles de variables sont étroitement liés. Ces résultats suggèrent que la santé mentale des soignants devrait constituer un élément central des interventions de réadaptation de LSA, en particulier en Amérique latine. HubMed – depression