Insight, Positive and Negative Symptoms, Hope, Depression and Self-Stigma: A Comprehensive Model of Mutual Influences in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

Insight, positive and negative symptoms, hope, depression and self-stigma: a comprehensive model of mutual influences in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2013 Jul 24; 1-9
Schrank B, Amering M, Hay AG, Weber M, Sibitz I

Aims. Insight, positive and negative symptoms, hope, depression and self-stigma are relevant variables in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. So far, research on their mutual influences has been patchy. This study simultaneously tests the associations between these variables. Methods. A total of 284 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed using the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Integrative Hope Scale, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale. Path analysis was applied to test the hypothesized relationships between the variables. Results. Model support was excellent. Strong and mutual causal influences were confirmed between hope, depression and self-stigma. The model supported the assumption that insight diminishes hope and increases depression and self-stigma. While negative symptoms directly affected these three variables, reducing hope and increasing depression and self-stigma, positive symptoms did not. However, positive symptoms diminished self-stigma on a pathway via insight. Conclusions. This study provides a comprehensive synopsis of the relationships between six variables relevant for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Research implications include the need to investigate determinants of consequences of insight, and the sequence of influences exerted by positive and negative symptoms. Clinical implications include the importance of interventions against self-stigma and of taking a contextualized approach to insight. HubMed – depression

Association between depression and fall risk among elderly community residents.

Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. 2012; 49(6): 760-6
Tanaka M, Kusaga M, Ushijima K, Watanabe C

Aim: To investigate the relationship between depression and fall risk in the elderly. Methods: Residents of a village in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan (563 people), aged ?65 years were given a self-administered questionnaire survey between June and July 2010. To evaluate depression status and fall risk, the Geriatric Depression Scale -Short Form and the Simple Screening Test for Risk of Falls were administered. Adjustment factors assessed were age, sex, medical history for diseases associated with falls, usage of hypnotics, and cognitive dysfunction. We examined the relationship between depression and fall risk using multiple logistic regression analysis. Given that some degree of correlation was expected among adjustment factors in the model, we constructed a model that introduced the adjustment factors stepwise to confirm the robustness of the model and any effect of multicollinearity. Results: Overall (n=395), after excluding data from participants with significant cognitive disturbance or severe physical problems from among valid responders, a significant relationship was found between depression and fall risk in all models. The odds ratio was 2.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.31-3.96) in the final model, controlling for all adjustment factors. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a significant relationship between depression and fall risk in the elderly. This relationship implies that the improvement of depression could be an effective measure to decrease fall risk in the elderly. HubMed – depression

A study of factors influenced by self-efficacy for exercise among community-dwelling elderly men in urban areas.

Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. 2012; 49(6): 740-5
Takai I

Aim: It is important to promote self-efficacy for exercise for developing exercise habit. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influenced by self-efficacy for exercise among community-dwelling elderly men in urban areas. Methods: The subjects were 69 elderly men (mean age of 74.2±2.0 SD) who had given approval for participation in the study. We examined the following factors: family situation, history of falls, frequency of going out, stage model of a change, self-efficacy for exercise, fall efficacy scale (FES), geriatric depression scale (GDS), subjective health, functional ability and motor function (5 m walking time, chair stand test-5times). Analysis of variance was used to assess a stage model of a change differences in self-efficacy for exercise and other measures. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationships between self-efficacy for exercise and other measures. Results: We found that self-efficacy of exercise, FES, GDS (p<0.01) and CST (p<0.05) vary depending on the stage model of change. Self-efficacy for exercise was found to correlate with psychological factors and functional ability (|r|=0.47-0.67). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the independent factors related to self-efficacy for exercise were FES and GDS. Conclusion: FES and GDS were found to be significant and independent predictors of self-efficacy for exercise in community-dwelling elderly men in urban areas. We should consider not only the approach based on behavioral science but also mental support for depression and fear of falling to promote exercise self-efficacy. HubMed – depression

Ethnic and Religious Discrimination: The Multifaceted Role of Religiosity and Collective Self-esteem.

Transcult Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 24;
Hassan G, Rousseau C, Moreau N

This study analyses the roles of collective self-esteem and religiosity in the relationship between discrimination and psychological distress among a sample of 432 recent immigrants from Haiti and Arab countries living in Montreal, Quebec. Collective self-esteem (CSE), religiosity, discriminatory experiences, and psychological symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed. Regression analyses revealed direct negative effects of discrimination, CSE, and religiosity on psychological distress for the entire sample. CSE, however, also appeared to moderate the effects of discrimination on psychological distress. Participants with higher CSE reported lower levels of anxiety and depression as a result of discrimination compared to those who expressed lower CSE levels. The results suggest that the relationship between CSE, discrimination, and psychological distress must be reexamined in light of recent sociopolitical changes and the upsurge in ethnic and religious tensions following the war on terror. HubMed – depression