Injectable Extended-Release Naltrexone (XR-NTX) for Opioid Dependence: Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness.

Injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) for opioid dependence: long-term safety and effectiveness.

Addiction. 2013 May 24;
Krupitsky E, Nunes EV, Ling W, Gastfriend DR, Memisoglu A, Silverman BL

AIMS: To describe drug use and safety with intramuscular injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) in opioid dependence during a 1-year open-label extension phase. DESIGN: Following 6 months of randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled injections given every 28 days, patients receiving XR-NTX 380?mg continued and PBO patients were switched to open-label XR-NTX, with monthly individual drug counseling, for a further year. SETTING: Thirteen clinical sites in Russia. PARTICIPANTS: Adult opioid-dependent outpatients. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly urine samples; reports of craving and functioning; adverse events. FINDINGS: For the open-label extension (n?=?114), 67 continued on XR-NTX and 47 switched from PBO during the double-blind phase to XR-NTX during the open-label phase. Overall, 62.3% (95% CI: 52.7%, 71.2%) completed the extension. Discontinuation occurred most commonly because of withdrawal of consent (18.4%) and loss to follow-up (11.4%); two patients discontinued as a result of lack of efficacy and one because of adverse events. Urine testing revealed that 50.9% (41.5%, 60.4%) were abstinent from opioids at all assessments during the 1-year open-label phase. Adverse events reported by 21.1% of patients were judged to be study drug-related. Injection site reactions were infrequent (6.1%) and the majority were mild. Elevations in liver function tests occurred for 16.7% of patients, but none of these elevations was judged to be clinically significant. No patients died, overdosed or discontinued as a result of severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: During a 1-year open-label extension phase of injectable XR-NTX for the prevention of relapse in opioid dependence, 62.3% of patients completed the phase and 50.9% were abstinent from opioids. No new safety concerns were evident. HubMed – addiction


Involvement of imidazoline system in drug addiction.

Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2012 Oct-Dec; 116(4): 1118-22
Ciubotariu D, Nechifor M

The imidazoline system (a concept which is barely over decades old) consists in imidazoline receptors I, I2 and I3 and their active endogenous ligands, the most important of which is agmatine. Brain contains both I1 and 12 of imidazoline receptors. One of the most important functions of this system is modulation of different behaviour components, such as suicidal behaviour, stress, anxiety, food intake etc. Own data preliminary data revealed different effects of alpha2 and imidazoline-receptors antagonists on morphine conditioned place preference (efaroxan reduces its intensity, while idazoxan has no influence); this reveals a possible di fferent role of I1 and I2 receptors in reward system. HubMed – addiction


Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents: a three-year longitudinal study.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2013 Jun; 26(3 Suppl): S10-7
Yu L, Shek DT

The present study investigated the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents using a longitudinal design.Three waves of data were collected over 3 years from students in 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong (Wave 1: 3,325 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 y; Wave 2: 3,638 students, age = 13.64 ± 0.75 y; Wave 3: 4,106 students, age = 14.65 ± 0.80 y).Young’s 10-item Internet Addiction Test, Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale, and Chinese Family Assessment Instrument were used.At Wave 3, 22.5% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction, which was lower than those observed at Wave 1 (26.4%) and Wave 2 (26.7%). Using different measures at Wave 1 to predict Internet addiction at Wave 3, it was found that male students showed more problematic Internet use behavior than did female students; good family functioning predicted lower probability of having Internet addiction; positive youth development indicators negatively predicted Internet addictive behaviors over time.The results suggest that strengthening family functioning and promoting positive youth development could be a direction for preventing Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. HubMed – addiction



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