Influence From Friends to Drink More or Drink Less: A Cross-National Comparison.

Influence from friends to drink more or drink less: A cross-national comparison.

Addict Behav. 2013 Jun 13; 38(11): 2675-2682
Astudillo M, Connor J, Roiblatt RE, Ibanga AK, Gmel G

Drinking habits are socially patterned and social networks influence individuals’ drinking behaviors. Previous studies have focused primarily upon the influence from family members to drink less. Those studies that have focused upon peer influence have been largely confined to social norms among adolescent and college-age drinkers. By contrast, based in adult populations, this article examines exhortations from friends not only to reduce alcohol consumption but also to increase it. Survey data in 15 countries that participate in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study project (GENACIS) were used to test whether there were country and gender differences concerning the influence to drink less or to drink more by friends and examine if this was affected by the drinking behavior. The findings revealed that those influenced to drink less had more heavy episodic drinking (HED) occasions than those who did not report such influence. By contrast, influence to drink more, originating mainly from same-sex friends, may be more the result of social situations that encourage all drinkers, regardless of their frequency of HED occasions. At the country level, influence to drink less for both sexes decreased with the proportion of drinkers in a country. Similarly, influence to drink less for both sexes also decreased in countries where gender roles were more egalitarian. Thus, in countries where alcohol use is more widespread and fewer differences are observed between male and female gender role expectations, fewer people were influenced to drink less. These findings have implications for social and behavioral strategies designed to reduce alcohol-related harm across a wide range of cultures. HubMed – addiction

Quit intention as a predictor of quit attempts over time in adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

Am J Addict. 2013 Jun 26;
Tzilos GK, Strong DR, Abrantes AM, Ramsey SE, Brown RA

Rates of smoking among adolescents with psychiatric comorbidity are high, despite the well-known health risks. The current longitudinal study examined patterns of quitting behavior in adolescent smokers with psychiatric comorbidity.The study evaluated 191 inpatient adolescents who had been enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing versus brief advice for smoking cessation, and assessed their intentions to quit smoking.Rates of quit attempts at post-hospital, 1-month, and 6-month assessments were 23%, 17%, and 17%, respectively. Adolescents who reported an intention to quit smoking (43%) were significantly more likely to report a quit attempt, regardless of psychiatric symptoms, cognitive factors, or substance use.Intention to quit smoking appears to translate to substantial quit behavior, even in a high-risk adolescent population that may otherwise be viewed as uninterested in quitting, suggesting the need to proactively connect this population with adequate services and follow-up support. (Am J Addict 2013;XX:1-6). HubMed – addiction

Practical support aids addiction recovery: the positive identity model of change.

BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 31; 13(1): 201
Johansen AB, Brendryen H, Darnell FJ, Wennesland DK

There is a need for studies that can highlight principles of addiction recovery. Because social relationships are involved in all change processes, understanding how social motivations affect the recovery process is vital to guide support programs.The objective was to develop a model of recovery by examining addicted individuals’ social motivations through longitudinal assessment of non-professional support dyads. A qualitative, longitudinal study design was used, combining focus groups and in-depth interviews with addicted individuals and their sponsors. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory: open coding and memos for conceptual labelling, axial coding for category building, and selective coding for theory building. The setting was an addiction recovery social support program in Oslo, Norway. The informants included nine adults affected by addiction, six sponsors, and the program coordinator. The participants were addicted to either alcohol (2), benzodiazepines (1), pain killers (1) or polydrug-use (5). The sponsors were unpaid, and had no history of addiction problems.Support perceived to be ineffective emerged in dyads with no operationalized goal, and high emotional availability with low degree of practical support. Support perceived to be effective was signified by the sponsor attending to power imbalance and the addict coming into position to help others and feel useful.The findings appear best understood as a positive identity-model of recovery, indicated by the pursuit of skill building relevant to a non-drug using identity, and enabled by the on-going availability of instrumental support. This produced situations where role reversals were made possible, leading to increased self-esteem. Social support programs should be based on a positive identity-model of recovery that enable the building of a life-sustainable identity. HubMed – addiction