Important Controversies Associated With Isotretinoin Therapy for Acne.

Important Controversies Associated with Isotretinoin Therapy for Acne.

Am J Clin Dermatol. 2013 Apr 5;
Wolverton SE, Harper JC

Isotretinoin is a remarkably effective drug for severe, recalcitrant acne vulgaris. Soon after the drug’s release in the early 1980s, a number of important adverse effects were reported subsequently leading to a variety of medical and medicolegal controversies. Three of these controversies will be highlighted concerning the putative role of isotretinoin in (1) depression and suicide, (2) inflammatory bowel disease, and (3) iPledge and pregnancy prevention programs. It appears that a very small subset of patients receiving isotretinoin for acne are at risk for depression, which is very manageable provided there is adequate patient awareness of the possibility, maximum communication between the patient and physician, and cessation of therapy if clinically important depression occurs (after which the depression rapidly resolves in a week or less). Multiple controlled studies actually suggest a very favorable effect of isotretinoin on depression and anxiety common in the population requiring isotretinoin. With regard to inflammatory bowel disease, in just one study, only ulcerative colitis association with isotretinoin reached statistical significance. The actual incidence of this association is strikingly low. Finally, it is clear that even the most recent pregnancy prevention program (iPledge) is no more successful than prior programs; there will likely always be a small number of female patients becoming pregnant while receiving isotretinoin for acne vulgaris. HubMed – depression


Depression-like behavior is dependent on age in male SAMP8 mice.

Biogerontology. 2013 Apr 5;
Pérez-Cáceres D, Ciudad-Roberts A, Rodrigo MT, Pubill D, Camins A, Camarasa J, Escubedo E, Pallàs M

Aging is associated with an increased risk of depression in humans. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of depression and its dependence on aging, here we study signs of depression in male SAMP8 mice. For this purpose, we used the forced swimming test (FST). The total floating time in the FST was greater in SAMP8 than in SAMR1 mice at 9 months of age; however, this difference was not observed in 12-month-old mice, when both strains are considered elderly. Of the two strains, only the SAMP8 animals responded to imipramine treatment. We also applied the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and studied changes in the dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) uptake systems, the 5-HT2a/2c receptor density in the cortex, and levels of TPH2. The DST showed a significant difference between SAMR1 and SAMP8 mice at old age. SAMP8 exhibits an increase in 5-HT transporter density, with slight changes in 5-HT2a/2c receptor density. In conclusion, SAMP8 mice presented depression-like behavior that is dependent on senescence process, because it differs from SAMR1, senescence resistant strain. HubMed – depression


Native acetabular version: 3D CT analysis ?of the psoas valley.

Hip Int. 2013 Apr 4; 0
Osmani HT, Henckel J, Cobb J, Hart AJ

Insufficient version has been demonstrated to be a significant factor in increasing metal-on-metal cup wear. Another implication is the impingement of the psoas tendon at the anatomical depression on the anterior acetabular rim, called the psoas valley. It is not known whether the psoas valley has any anatomical significance when measuring native version. The effect of this landmark on the measurement of acetabular version has not been assessed using 3D CT.?Sixty five high resolution CT scans of non-diseased hips (performed for colonography) were used to measure the anatomical version angles of the bony acetabular rim. Our new method, using the psoas valley, was compared to the reference method, which used the full 320° of the acetabular rim. The measurement of acetabular version was highly reproducible between the methods. Both methods measured the angle of version over a wide range: 5° to 35° for males and 10° to 40° for females. There were no statistically significant differences between genders (p = 0.3670). The Bland-Altman 1.96 SD lower and upper limits of agreement between the two methods were +4.6° and -4.3°, respectively. Intra-observer and inter-observer reliability were high for the new method. This adds to our understanding of native bony anatomy, and specifically provides a landmark that 3D CT has demonstrated to be potentially useful in assessing native version. HubMed – depression


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in theAssessment of Motor Cortex Excitability andTreatment of Drug-Resistant Major Depression.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2013 Apr 3;
Spampinato C, Aguglia E, Concerto C, Pennisi M, Lanza G, Bella R, Cantone M, Pennisi G, Kavasidis I, Giordano D

Major depression is one of the leading causes of disabling condition worldwide and its treatment is often challenging and unsatisfactory, since many patients become refractory to pharmacological therapies. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non invasive neurophysiological investigation mainly used to study the integrity of the primary motor cortex excitability and of the cortico-spinal tract. The development of pairedpulse and repetitive TMS (rTMS) paradigms has allowed investigators to explore the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and other neuropsychiatric diseases linked to brain excitability dysfunctions. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has also therapeutic and rehabilitative capabilities since it is able to induce changes in the excitability of inhibitory and excitatory neuronal networks that may persist in time. However, the therapeutic effects of rTMS on major depression have been demonstrated by analyzing only the improvement of neuropsychological performance. The aim of this study was to investigate cortical excitability changes on twelve chronically-medicated depressed patients (test group) after rTMS treatment and to correlate neurophysiological findings to neuropsychological outcomes. In detail, we assessed different parameters of cortical excitability before and after active rTMS in the test group, then compared to those of ten age-matched depressed patients (control group) who underwent sham rTMS. In line with previous studies, at baseline both groups exhibited a significant interhemispheric difference of motor cortex excitability. This neurophysiological imbalance was then reduced in the patients treated with active rTMS, resulting also in a clinical benefit as demonstrated by the improvement in neuropsychological test scores. On the contrary, after sham rTMS, the interhemispheric difference was still evident in the control group. The reported clinical benefits in the test group might be related to the plastic remodeling of synaptic connection induced by rTMS treatment. HubMed – depression