Impaired Error-Monitoring Function in People With Internet Addiction Disorder: An Event-Related fMRI Study.

Impaired Error-Monitoring Function in People with Internet Addiction Disorder: An Event-Related fMRI Study.

Eur Addict Res. 2013 Mar 23; 19(5): 269-275
Dong G, Shen Y, Huang J, Du X

Background: Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IAD should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity. This study was set to investigate the error-monitoring ability in IAD subjects. Methods: Fifteen IAD subjects and 15 healthy controls (HC) participated in this study. Participants were asked to perform a fast Stroop task that may show error responses. Behavioral and neurobiological results in relation to error responses were compared between IAD subjects and HC. Results: Compared to HC, IAD subjects showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and decreased activation in the orbitofrontal cortex following error responses. Significant correlation was found between ACC activation and the Internet addiction test scores. Conclusions: IAD subjects show an impaired error-monitoring ability compared to HC, which can be detected by the hyperactivation in ACC in error responses. HubMed – addiction


The Concepts of Rash Impulsiveness and Reward Sensitivity in Substance Use Disorders.

Eur Addict Res. 2013 Mar 23; 19(5): 261-268
Boog M, Goudriaan AE, van de Wetering BJ, Deuss H, Franken IH

According to recent theories of addiction, the commonly used term impulsivity comprises two factors: rash impulsiveness and reward sensitivity. The present study addresses the relevance and generalizability of this two-factor model in a clinical sample of substance use disorder patients. This was examined by examining both internal and external validity. In addition, a comparison was made between self-reported and behavioral measures reflecting reward sensitivity and rash impulsiveness. Results provide evidence for the existence of the two hypothesized impulsivity factors in a clinical sample of substance dependent patients. Meaningful relationships between the model and drug use characteristics have been found, providing further evidence for the validity of the two-factor model. Furthermore, it is suggested that behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity represent different constructs. HubMed – addiction


Does opiate use in traumatically injured individuals worsen pain and psychological outcomes?

J Pain. 2013 Apr; 14(4): 424-30
Trevino CM, Deroon-Cassini T, Brasel K

Opiate use for chronic pain is becoming increasingly controversial. There has been a shift away from supporting the use of opiates for treatment of chronic pain. In addition to lack of effectiveness, concerns for adverse clinical outcomes, addiction, and death have provided the impetus for this change. The purpose of this study was to investigate the percent of trauma patients still using opiates, their pain levels, and psychological outcomes 4 months posttrauma. This was a study to evaluate chronic pain at 4 months posttrauma in 101 participants from a single level 1 trauma center. Eighty of the 101 participants developed chronic pain 4 months after their initial traumatic injury (79%). Of those who developed chronic pain, 27 (26%) were still using opiates. Those using narcotics at 4 months posttrauma had significantly more pain, life interference, depression, and anxiety. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was not significantly influenced by narcotic use in this analysis. However, the mean associated with those using narcotics was higher and diagnostic for PTSD. Those taking opiates did not have significantly better relief from their pain using treatments or medications than those not using opiates (F = 8, P = .08). These findings bring into question the appropriate use of opiates for chronic pain and the possible exacerbating effects on pain and psychopathology in traumatically injured patients. PERSPECTIVE: This article identifies data that provide evidence that narcotic pain medication needs to be used carefully in traumatically injured patients with chronic pain, especially in those individuals with comorbid psychological pathology. HubMed – addiction


Synergistic analgesic effects between neuronostatin and morphine at the supraspinal level.

Peptides. 2013 Mar 30;
Yang SB, Yang AM, Shao TJ, Su SF, Chen Q

Neuronostatin, a 13-amino acid peptide, is encoded in the somatostatin pro-hormone. I.c.v. administration of neuronostatin produces a significant antinociceptive effect in the mouse tail-flick test, which is mediated by endogenous opioid acceptor. However, the direct functional interaction between morphine and neuronostatin has not been characterized. In the present study, effect of neuronostatin on morphine analgesia was investigated in the tail-flick test. Our findings showed that i.c.v. administration of neuronostatin (0.3 nmol/mouse i.c.v.) significantly enhanced the antinociceptive effect of morphine (2.5, 5 or 10?g/kg) at the supraspinal level. Results of antagonism experiments suggested that the synergistic analgesia induced by morphine and neuronostatin was mediated by ?- and ?-opioid receptors not ?-opioid receptor. In conclusion, there may be a cascade amplification phenomenon when morphine and neuronostatin were co-administered in acute pain model. The above results provide evidence for the potential use of neuronostatin in combination with morphine to control pain and addiction. HubMed – addiction



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