Impact of Dual Disorders, Trauma, and Social Support on Quality of Life Among Women in Treatment for Substance Dependence.

Impact of Dual Disorders, Trauma, and Social Support on Quality of Life Among Women in Treatment for Substance Dependence.

J Dual Diagn. 2013 Jan 1; 9(1): 61-71
Brown S, Jun MK, Min MO, Tracy EM

Women with dual disorders report lower levels of social support than women with substance dependence alone, and lower levels of social support have been associated with lower quality of life among individuals with substance use disorders. However, little is known about the impact of trauma symptoms and violence exposure on quality of life for women with dual disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of dual disorders, trauma, and social support related to recovery on various domains of quality of life among women in substance abuse treatment.This study utilized multiple standardized measures and hierarchical ordinary least squares regression to examine quality of life, trauma, and social support in women with dual disorders. Four domains of quality of life were measured (Physical, Psychological, Social, and Environmental Domains). Participants (N=369) were recruited from three inner city women only addiction treatment programs. IRB approval was obtained prior to sample recruitment.Presence of a dual disorder was significantly associated with lower quality of life in the Physical and Psychological domains. However, this difference was no longer significant when trauma symptoms were added to the model. Trauma symptoms and Support for Recovery significantly predicted quality of life across all four domains and Friends Support for Abstinence across three domains.Findings suggest that the presence of a dual disorder in women may indicate a history of trauma. They also support the importance of both friend’s support for abstinence and recovery support as predictors of quality of life in women with dual disorders. Interventions that focus on social support and quality of life in treatment with women with substance use disorders may potentially enhance treatment outcomes. HubMed – addiction


Dopamine Genetics and Function in Food and Substance Abuse.

J Genet Syndr Gene Ther. 2013 Feb 10; 4(121):
Blum K, Oscar-Berman M, Barh D, Giordano J, Gold M

Having entered the genomics era with confidence in the future of medicine, including psychiatry, identifying the role of DNA and polymorphic associations with brain reward circuitry has led to a new understanding of all addictive behaviors. It is noteworthy that this strategy may provide treatment for the millions who are the victims of “Reward Deficiency Syndrome” (RDS) a genetic disorder of brain reward circuitry. This article will focus on drugs and food being mutuality addictive, and the role of dopamine genetics and function in addictions, including the interaction of the dopamine transporter, and sodium food. We will briefly review our concept that concerns the genetic antecedents of multiple-addictions (RDS). Studies have also shown that evaluating a panel of established reward genes and polymorphisms enables the stratification of genetic risk to RDS. The panel is called the “Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS)”, and is a tool for the diagnosis of a genetic predisposition for RDS. The use of this test, as pointed out by others, would benefit the medical community by identifying at risk individuals at a very early age. We encourage, in depth work in both animal and human models of addiction. We encourage further exploration of the neurogenetic correlates of the commonalities between food and drug addiction and endorse forward thinking hypotheses like “The Salted Food Addiction Hypothesis”. HubMed – addiction


Nicotine-Induced Structural Plasticity in Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons Is Mediated by Dopamine D3 Receptors and Akt-mTORC1 Signalling.

Mol Pharmacol. 2013 Mar 29;
Collo G, Bono F, Cavalleri L, Plebani L, Mitola S, Merlo Pich E, Millan MJ, Zoli M, Maskos U, Spano P, Missale C

Though long-term exposure to nicotine is highly addictive, one “beneficial” consequence of chronic tobacco use is a reduced risk for Parkinson’s disease. Interestingly, these effects both reflect structural and functional plasticity of brain circuits controlling reward and motor behavior, and specifically recruitment of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Since the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood, we addressed this issue employing primary cultures of mouse mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Exposure to nicotine (1-10 ?M) for 72 hr in vitro increased dendritic arborization and soma size in primary cultures. These effects were blocked by mecamylamine and dihydro-?-erythroidine, but not methyllycaconitine. The involvement of ?4?2 nAChR was supported by the lack of nicotine-induced structural remodeling in neurons from ?4 null mutant mice (KO). Challenge with nicotine triggered phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the thymoma viral proto-oncogene (Akt) followed by activation of the mTORC1-dependent p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase. Upstream pathway blockade using the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 resulted in suppression of nicotine-induced phosphorylations and structural plasticity. These effects were dependent upon functional DA D3 receptor (D3R) since nicotine was inactive both in cultures from D3R KO mice and following pharmacologic blockade with D3R antagonist SB-277011-A (50 nM). Finally, exposure to nicotine in utero (5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) resulted in increased soma area of DAergic neurons of newborn mice, effects not observed in D3KO mice. These findings indicate that nicotine-induced structural plasticity in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons involves ?4?2 nAChRs together with dopamine D3R-mediated recruitment of ERK/Akt-mTORC1 signaling. HubMed – addiction


Common Phenotype in Patients with Both Food and Substance Dependence: Case Reports.

J Genet Syndr Gene Ther. 2013 Feb 6; 4(122):
Campbell H, Oscar-Berman M, Giordano J, Beley T, Barh D, Downs B, Blum K

The understanding that genes play a significant role in reward dependence and associated behavioral and drug addictions is highlighted in the emergence of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). Here we show two case reports that unequivocally indicate the definite commonality between food and drug addiction. These human cases not atypically raise the question as to how to treat these two seemingly diverse addictions. We suggest that research directed in an attempt to induce natural activation of dopaminergic reward circuitry as a form of common therapy may indeed be parsimonious. HubMed – addiction



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