Illuminating Cancer Systems With Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and Coupled Luciferase Reporters in Vivo.

Illuminating Cancer Systems with Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and Coupled Luciferase Reporters In Vivo.

Cancer Discov. 2013 Apr 12;
Kocher B, Piwnica-Worms D

Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful noninvasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMM) of cancer, which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, posttranslational processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation, and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a noninvasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiologic means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal. HubMed – addiction


Molecular Characterization of CTX-M ?-lactamase and associated Addiction Systems in Escherichia coli circulating among Cattle, Farm workers, and Farm environment.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013 Apr 12;
Tamang MD, Nam HM, Gurung M, Jang GC, Kim SR, Jung SC, Park YH, Lim SK

A total of 84 extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle, farm workers, and farm environment during February to September 2008 in Korea were investigated. All the 84 ESBL-producing isolates carried blaCTX-M genes that belonged to CTX-M-1 (n = 35) or CTX-M-9 (n = 49) family. The most predominant CTX-M type identified was CTX-M-14 (n = 49) followed by CTX-M-32 (n = 26). The blaCTX-M genes were identified most commonly in E. coli isolated from feces (n = 29), teats (n = 25), and milk (n = 14). A blaCTX-M-14 gene was also detected in an E. coli isolated from a farmer’s hand. Transfer of blaCTX-M gene was demonstrated from 60 blaCTX-M-positive E. coli isolates to recipient E. coli J53 by conjugation. Plasmid isolation from blaCTX-M-positive transconjugants revealed a large (95 – 140 Kb) conjugative plasmid. Almost all (82/84) blaCTX-M genes possessed an insertion sequence ISEcp1 upstream of blaCTX-M gene. Only in the case of the CTX-M-14 genes was there IS903 downstream of the gene. The blaCTX-M genes were associated with seven kinds of addiction systems. Among them, pndAC, hok-Sok, and srnBC were the most frequently identified addiction systems in both wild strains and transconjugants. The spread of blaCTX-M genes was attributed to both clonal expansion and horizontal dissemination. Our data suggest that a combination of multiple addiction systems in plasmids carrying blaCTX-M genes could contribute to their maintenance in the host cells. To our knowledge, the blaCTX-M-32 gene has not previously been reported in animal isolates from Korea. HubMed – addiction


[Computer games and internet addiction as well as pathological gambling : Therapy approaches.]

Nervenarzt. 2013 Apr 14;
Wölfling K, Leménager T, Peukert P, Batra A

In accordance with the development of substance-related disorders, behavioral addictions, such as internet use disorder and pathological gambling are regarded as repetitive excessive behavior which increasingly turns into an automatic action which is difficult to control intentionally. This automatic behavior is reinforced by learning processes, associated with neuroadaption, especially in the dopaminergic reward system. Treatment aims at finding alternatives for gambling or online activities and reducing times online so that social contacts need to be re-established. The following article provides a short overview on studies assessing the effects of different psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions and details psychotherapeutic treatment options. HubMed – addiction


When Opioids Fail in Chronic Pain Management: The Role for Buprenorphine and Hospitalization.

Am J Ther. 2013 Apr 11;
Berland DW, Malinoff HL, Weiner MA, Przybylski R

Clinicians are increasingly being challenged by patients who are treated for chronic pain with high-dose opioids that can cause medical, social, and societal harm. These patients may best be improved by psychological approaches, adjuvant medications, and opioid reduction or removal, rather than ever-escalating dosing that has become common. Opioid reduction or removal can be a difficult process that, when done incorrectly, may cause patient dissatisfaction or severe discomfort. Buprenorphine, a partial opioid agonist, is slowly becoming recognized as an effective pain treatment, possessing a wide safety margin while offering the opportunity for stabilization of opioid dosing or even removal. We have developed a protocol for hospitalization of the most fragile or toxic patients detailed herein that can permit a comfortable conversion to buprenorphine from prior high-dose full agonist opioid therapy. Seventy-six consecutive patients with serious medical, psychological, or addiction comorbidities, treated with morphine equivalent doses exceeding hundreds of milligrams per day, were followed after conversion for up to 25 months. Two-thirds reported moderate to dramatic improvements of pain and functional status with an increase seen in employment. Median length of hospital stay was 2 days, and the median daily buprenorphine discharge dose was 8 mg. No adverse reactions or outcomes were observed. A brief hospitalization for conversion from high-dose opioid therapy to a safer, more effective buprenorphine regimen can produce life-altering improvement. HubMed – addiction