Identifying the Molecular Basis of Inhibitory Control Deficits in Addictions: Neuroimaging in Non-Human Primates.

Identifying the molecular basis of inhibitory control deficits in addictions: neuroimaging in non-human primates.

Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Mar 22;
Groman SM, Jentsch JD

Deep insights into the structural, molecular and functional phenotypes underlying addiction have been made possible through in vivo neuroimaging techniques implemented in non-human and human primates. In addition to providing evidence that many of the neural alterations detected in stimulant-dependent individuals can emerge solely through experience with drugs, these studies have identified potential biological phenotypes that influence addiction liability. Here, we review recent advances that have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of stimulant addiction using neuroimaging techniques in non-human primates. Evidence indicates that dysfunction of the dopamine system can be both a cause and consequence of stimulant use and that this bi-directional relationship may be mediated by the ability of individuals to exert inhibitory control over behaviors. Further, recent data has demonstrated an involvement of the serotonin system in addiction-related behaviors and neurobiology, suggesting that the relationship between dopamine and serotonin systems may be altered in addiction. This approach aids in the development of novel targets that can be used in the treatment of addiction. HubMed – addiction


A systematic review of substance misuse assessment packages.

Drug Alcohol Rev. 2013 Mar 25;
Sweetman J, Raistrick D, Mdege ND, Crosby H

ISSUES: Health-care systems globally are moving away from process measures of performance to payments for outcomes achieved. It follows that there is a need for a selection of proven quality tools that are suitable for undertaking comprehensive assessments and outcomes assessments. This review aimed to identify and evaluate existing comprehensive assessment packages. The work is part of a national program in the UK, Collaborations in Leadership of Applied Health Research and Care. APPROACH: Systematic searches were carried out across major databases to identify instruments designed to assess substance misuse. For those instruments identified, searches were carried out using the Cochrane Library, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE(®) and PsychINFO to identify articles reporting psychometric data. KEY FINDINGS: From 595 instruments, six met the inclusion criteria: Addiction Severity Index; Chemical Use, Abuse and Dependence Scale; Form 90; Maudsley Addiction Profile; Measurements in the Addictions for Triage and Evaluation; and Substance Abuse Outcomes Module. The most common reasons for exclusion were that instruments were: (i) designed for a specific substance (239); (ii) not designed for use in addiction settings (136); (iii) not providing comprehensive assessment (89); and (iv) not suitable as an outcome measure (20). IMPLICATIONS: The six packages are very different and suited to different uses. No package had adequate evaluation of their properties and so the emphasis should be on refining a small number of tools with very general application rather than creating new ones. An alternative to using ‘off-the-shelf’ packages is to create bespoke packages from well-validated, single-construct scales. [Sweetman J, Raistrick D, Mdege ND, Crosby H. A systematic review of substance misuse assessment packages. Drug Alcohol Rev 2013]. HubMed – addiction


A Protocol to Evaluate Drug-Related Workplace Impairment.

J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2013 Mar; 27(1): 43-48
Reisfield GM, Shults T, Demery J, Dupont R

ABSTRACT The dramatic increase in the use and abuse of prescription controlled substances, cannabis, and a rapidly evolving array of legal and illegal psychotropic drugs has led to a growing concern by employers about workplace impairment, incidents, and accidents. The Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs, which serve as a template for most private sector programs, focus on a small group of illicit drugs, but disregard the wider spectrum of legal and illegal psychotropic drugs and prescription controlled substances. We propose a protocol for the evaluation of workplace impairment, based on comprehensive drug and alcohol testing at the time of suspected impairment, followed expeditiously by a comprehensive physician evaluation, including a focused medical history with an emphasis on controlled substance use, physical and mental status examinations, evaluation of employee adherence to prescription medication instructions, additional drug testing if indicated, use of collateral sources of information, and querying of state prescription monitoring databases. Finally, we propose suggestions for optimizing the evaluation of drug-related workplace impairment. HubMed – addiction


Associations of parental feeding styles with child snacking behaviour and weight in the context of general parenting.

Public Health Nutr. 2013 Mar 26; 1-10
Rodenburg G, Kremers SP, Oenema A, van de Mheen D

OBJECTIVE: To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal (one-year follow-up) associations of parental feeding styles with child snacking behaviour and weight in the context of general parenting, taking into account the multidimensionality of the controlling feeding style. DESIGN: Linear regression analyses were performed. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure five feeding style dimensions (Instrumental Feeding, Emotional Feeding, Encouragement, Overt Control and Covert Control) and children’s fruit, energy-dense snack and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intakes. Children’s height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI Z-scores. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. SETTING: Observational study in the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Parent-child dyads (n 1275) participating in the INPACT (IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT) study; children were (on average) 9 years of age. RESULTS: Instrumental Feeding and Emotional Feeding were negatively related to child fruit intake one year later and positively to (changes in) child energy-dense snack intake. Encouragement was negatively related to child energy-dense snacking and SSB intake one year later. Overt Control was cross-sectionally and prospectively related to (changes in) child energy-dense snacking and SSB intake in a negative direction. Covert Control showed similar associations with child energy-dense snacking and SSB intake as Overt Control. Although Covert Control was also positively related to child fruit intake and (changes in) child BMI Z-score, bootstrapping analyses revealed only a differential effect of Overt Control and Covert Control on child BMI Z-score one year later, with Covert Control displaying a stronger, positive association. Moderation analyses showed that some significant associations between parental feeding styles and outcome measures were dependent on the degree of psychological control and behavioural control. CONCLUSIONS: Instrumental Feeding and Emotional Feeding may have a detrimental impact on children’s snacking behaviour, while Encouragement, Overt Control and Covert Control may lead to less energy-dense snacking and less SSB intake. Overt Control and Covert Control have differential effects on child BMI Z-score one year later, which supports the idea that they should be treated as separate constructs. Prospective studies with a longer follow-up may elucidate the causal pathways between the various feeding styles and children’s snacking behaviour and weight, as well as the moderating influences of psychological and behavioural control. HubMed – addiction


Coordination of behavioral hierarchies during environmental transitions in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Worm. 2012 1; 1(1): 5-11
Vidal-Gadea AG, Davis S, Becker L, Pierce-Shimomura JT

For animals inhabiting multiple environments, the ability to select appropriate behaviors is crucial as their adaptability is often context dependent. Caenorhabditis elegans uses distinct gaits to move on land and in water. Gait transitions can potentially coordinate behaviors associated with distinct environments. We investigated whether land and water differentially affect the behavioral repertoire of C. elegans. Swimming worms interrupted foraging, feeding, egg-laying and defecation. Exogenous dopamine induced bouts of these land-associated behaviors in water. Our finding that worms do not drink fluid while immersed may explain why higher drug doses are required in water than on land to elicit the same effects. C. elegans is a valid model to study behavioral hierarchies and how environmental pressures alter their balance. HubMed – addiction