iADRs: Towards Online Adverse Drug Reaction Analysis.

iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Springerplus. 2012 Dec; 1(1): 72
Lin WY, Li HY, Du JW, Feng WY, Lo CF, Soo VW

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs. These stand-alone methods, with no integration into knowledge discovery systems, are tedious and inconvenient for users and the processes for exploration are time-consuming. This paper proposes an interactive system platform for the detection of ADRs. By integrating an ADR data warehouse and innovative data mining techniques, the proposed system not only supports OLAP style multidimensional analysis of ADRs, but also allows the interactive discovery of associations between drugs and symptoms, called a drug-ADR association rule, which can be further developed using other factors of interest to the user, such as demographic information. The experiments indicate that interesting and valuable drug-ADR association rules can be efficiently mined.
HubMed – drug


Apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells transiently treated with imatinib or dasatinib is caused by residual BCR-ABL kinase inhibition.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Am J Hematol. 2013 Feb 18;
Simara P, Stejskal S, Koutna I, Potesil D, Tesarova L, Potesilova M, Zdrahal Z, Mayer J

Transient, potent BCR-ABL inhibition with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) was recently demonstrated to be sufficient to commit chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells to apoptosis irreversibly. This mechanism explains the clinical efficacy of once-daily dasatinib treatment, despite the rapid clearance of the drug from the plasma. However, our in vitro data suggest that apoptosis induction after transient TKI treatment, observed in the BCR-ABL-positive cell lines K562, KYO-1, and LAMA-84 and progenitor cells from chronic phase CML patients, is instead caused by a residual kinase inhibition that persists in the cells as a consequence of intracellular drug retention. High intracellular concentrations of imatinib and dasatinib residues were measured in transiently treated cells. Furthermore, the apoptosis induced by residual imatinib or dasatinib from transient treatment could be rescued by washing out the intracellularly retained drugs. The residual kinase inhibition was also undetectable by the phospho-CRKL assay. These findings confirm that continuous target inhibition is required for the optimal efficacy of kinase inhibitors. Am. J. Hematol., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
HubMed – drug


Oral Anticancer Drugs: Mechanisms of Low Bioavailability and Strategies for Improvement.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Clin Pharmacokinet. 2013 Feb 19;
Stuurman FE, Nuijen B, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH

The use of oral anticancer drugs has increased during the last decade, because of patient preference, lower costs, proven efficacy, lack of infusion-related inconveniences, and the opportunity to develop chronic treatment regimens. Oral administration of anticancer drugs is, however, often hampered by limited bioavailability of the drug, which is associated with a wide variability. Since most anticancer drugs have a narrow therapeutic window and are dosed at or close to the maximum tolerated dose, a wide variability in the bioavailability can have a negative impact on treatment outcome. This review discusses mechanisms of low bioavailability of oral anticancer drugs and strategies for improvement. The extent of oral bioavailability depends on many factors, including release of the drug from the pharmaceutical dosage form, a drug’s stability in the gastrointestinal tract, factors affecting dissolution, the rate of passage through the gut wall, and the pre-systemic metabolism in the gut wall and liver. These factors are divided into pharmaceutical limitations, physiological endogenous limitations, and patient-specific limitations. There are several strategies to reduce or overcome these limitations. First, pharmaceutical adjustment of the formulation or the physicochemical characteristics of the drug can improve the dissolution rate and absorption. Second, pharmacological interventions by combining the drug with inhibitors of transporter proteins and/or pre-systemic metabolizing enzymes can overcome the physiological endogenous limitations. Third, chemical modification of a drug by synthesis of a derivative, salt form, or prodrug could enhance the bioavailability by improving the absorption and bypassing physiological endogenous limitations. Although the bioavailability can be enhanced by various strategies, the development of novel oral products with low solubility or cell membrane permeability remains cumbersome and is often unsuccessful. The main reasons are unacceptable variation in the bioavailability and high investment costs. Furthermore, novel oral anticancer drugs are frequently associated with toxic effects including unacceptable gastrointestinal adverse effects. Therefore, compliance is often suboptimal, which may negatively influence treatment outcome.
HubMed – drug


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