History of Human Epidemic and Endemic Diseases in the Southwest Indian Ocean.

History of human epidemic and endemic diseases in the southwest Indian Ocean.

Med Sante Trop. 2013 Jun 24;
Gaüzère BA, Aubry P

Smallpox has been known in the Mascarene Islands since 1729, and in 1898, the vaccinogenic and anti-rabies Institute of Tananarive, the future Pasteur Institute of Madagascar, was created to combat it. Cholera first arrived in the Mascarenes in 1819, but did not affect the Comoros Islands and Madagascar until the current pandemic. Bubonic plague has beset the ports of Madagascar and the Mascarenes since 1898. Girard and Robic developed the anti-plague vaccine in 1931 at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar. The Mascarenes lost their reputation as Eden when malaria arrived in 1841, and this disease remains prominent in Madagascar and Comoros. Leprosy has been known in La Réunion since 1726 and is still very present in Mayotte, Anjouan, and Madagascar. Leptospirosis is a public health problem, except in Madagascar and the Comoros. Dengue, chikungunya, and Rift Valley fever are also present. HIV/AIDS is not a major concern, except in Mauritius, where it was spread by injection drug use, in the Seychelles and in Madagascar’s largest cities. Madagascar is the principal site worldwide of chromoblastomycosis, first described there in 1914. HubMed – drug


The Effect of Exposures to Policing on Syringe Sharing Among People Who Inject Drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

AIDS Behav. 2013 Jun 25;
Hayashi K, Ti L, Buxton JA, Kaplan K, Suwannawong P, Kerr T

While intensive drug law enforcement is recognized as a social-structural driver of HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs (IDU), few studies have investigated the effects of direct encounters with police, particularly in Asian settings. Using multivariate log-binomial regression, we examined the relationship between syringe sharing and exposures to two types of policing practices among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand: having been beaten by police and having been tested for illicit drugs by police. Between July and October 2011, 435 IDU participated in the study, with 75 (17.2 %) participants reporting syringe sharing in the past 6 months. In multivariate analyses, exposures to the two types of policing practices had an independent effect on syringe sharing, with experiencing both practices showing the greatest effect. These findings highlight the importance of addressing the policy and social environment surrounding IDU as a means of HIV prevention. HubMed – drug


“People Knew They Could Come Here to Get Help”: An Ethnographic Study of Assisted Injection Practices at a Peer-Run ‘Unsanctioned’ Supervised Drug Consumption Room in a Canadian Setting.

AIDS Behav. 2013 Jun 25;
McNeil R, Small W, Lampkin H, Shannon K, Kerr T

People who require help injecting are disproportionately vulnerable to drug-related harm, including HIV transmission. North America’s only sanctioned SIF operates in Vancouver, Canada under an exemption to federal drug laws, which imposes operating regulations prohibiting assisted injections. In response, the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU) launched a peer-run unsanctioned SIF in which trained peer volunteers provide assisted injections to increase the coverage of supervised injection services and minimize drug-related harm. We undertook qualitative interviews (n = 23) and ethnographic observation (50 h) to explore how this facility shaped assisted injection practices. Findings indicated that VANDU reshaped the social, structural, and spatial contexts of assisted injection practices in a manner that minimized HIV and other health risks, while allowing people who require help injecting to escape drug scene violence. Findings underscore the need for changes to regulatory frameworks governing SIFs to ensure that they accommodate people who require help injecting. HubMed – drug


The pH-controlled nanoparticles size of polydopamine for anti-cancer drug delivery.

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2013 Jun 25;
Ho CC, Ding SJ

A facile method was used to prepare polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles. The effect of the initial pH of the dopamine solution on the formation kinetics, chemical structure, and biocompatibility of PDA nanoparticles was evaluated. Additionally, camptothecin (CPT) was chosen as a model anti-cancer drug with which to evaluate the efficiency of drug loading and release behavior of PDA nanoparticles. The results indicated that the size and yield of PDA nanoparticles, consisting of quinoid and indoline species, were closely related to the pH value of the precursor solution. At a reaction time of 6 h, the uniform particle sizes of PDA nanoparticles were ~400, 250, 150, and 75 nm in solutions with initial pH values of 7.5, 8, 8.5, and 9, respectively, and with corresponding yields of 3, 7, 20, and 34 %. The amounts of CPT loaded in 1 mg of PDA nanoparticles synthesized at pH values of 7.5, 8, 8.5, and 9 for 6 h were 10.85, 11.81, 10.17, and 6.19 ?g, respectively. After the first day, 19, 20, 25, and 36 % of the CPT was released from PDA nanoparticles synthesized at pH values of 7.5, 8, 8.5, and 9, respectively, depending on the particle size. The PDA nanoparticles had excellent haemocompatibility: there was no apparent hemolysis, and they did not cause acute toxicity in A549 and HeLa cells. The loading of CPT into PDA nanoparticles significantly reduced the viability of A549 and HeLa cells, comparable to free CPT. It can be concluded that the PDA nanoparticles prepared by our facile method are potential carriers of anticancer drugs for cancer therapy. HubMed – drug



Washington_Doris.mov – Testimonial from a woman, formally drug addicted and homeless, whose life has been touched by The Salvation Army. She participated in the Army’s drug and alc…