High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Metabolism Study of Timosaponin AIII.

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Metabolism Study of Timosaponin AIII.

J Chromatogr Sci. 2013 May 21;
Jia Y, Wu B, Fan M, Wang J, Huang J, Huang C

A sensitive method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of timosaponin AIII (TA3) and its in vivo and in vitro metabolites. The rat plasma, urine, feces and tissue samples were collected after oral administration of TA3 at a single dose of 300 mg/kg. TA3 was incubated into artificial gastric juice and artificial intestinal juice. The in vivo and in vitro samples were purified by using liquid-liquid extraction. The structures of metabolites were elucidated by comparing their molecular weights, retention times and tandem mass spectrometric spectra with those of the parent drug. As a result, four metabolites (deglycosylated TA3, two hydroxylated TA3 and timosaponin BII) and the parent drug were found in in vivo and in vitro samples. In addition to the parent drug, one, one and two metabolites were identified in heart, urine and feces, respectively. Only the parent drug was detected in plasma, liver and kidney. One hydroxylation metabolite and TA3 were identified from incubation samples with AGJ, whereas two hydroxylation metabolites and TA3 were detected from the incubation with AIJ. This is the first systematic metabolism study of TA3. The biotransformation pathways of TA3 primarily included deglycosylation, hydroxylation and glycosylation. HubMed – drug


Neuroprotective effect of EGb761(R) and low-dose whole-body ?-irradiationin a rat model of Parkinson’s disease.

Toxicol Ind Health. 2013 May 21;
El-Ghazaly MA, Sadik NA, Rashed ER, Abd El-Fattah AA

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease. The present study was undertaken to investigate the pretreatment effects of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761(®)) and low-dose whole-body ?-irradiation on the neurological dysfunction in the reserpine model of PD. Male Wistar rats were pretreated orally with EGb761 or fractionated low-dose whole-body ?-irradiation or their combination, then subjected to intraperitoneal injection of reserpine (5 mg/kg body weight) 24 h after the final dose of EGb761 or radiation. Reserpine injection resulted in the depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) level, increased catalepsy score, increased oxidative stress indicated via depletion of glutathione (GSH), increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and iron levels, decreased DA metabolites metabolizing enzymes; indicated by inhibition by glutathione-S-transferase, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activities, mitochondrial dysfunction; indicated by declined complex I activity, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and increased apoptosis; indicated by decreased mitochondrial B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein level and by transmission electron microscope. EGb761 and low-dose ?-radiation ameliorated the reserpine-induced state of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis in brain. It can be concluded that EGb761, a widely used herbal medicine and low dose of ?-irradiation have protective effects for combating Parkinsonism possibly via replenishment of GSH levels. HubMed – drug