Growing Dairy Heifers Prefer Supplementary Long Straw When Fed a Nutrient-Dense Ration in a Limited Amount.

Growing dairy heifers prefer supplementary long straw when fed a nutrient-dense ration in a limited amount.

J Dairy Sci. 2013 Apr 12;
Greter AM, Prinsen M, Duffield TF, McBride BW, Widowski TM, Devries TJ

The objective of this study was to determine whether limit-fed heifers will choose to consume long particles, rather than short, of a low-nutritive feedstuff to ameliorate rumen function and meet foraging needs. Ten Holstein heifers 261.6 ± 39.2 (mean ± SD) d of age were exposed to each of 2 dietary treatments, in a random order, over 2 successive 7-d treatment periods (4-d adaptation period and a 3-d data collection period) using a crossover design. The treatments were (1) a provision of long particle oat straw (85% of particles > 8 mm; LS) and (2) provision of short particle oat straw (45% of particles >8 mm; SS). Both treatments were offered following consumption of a limit-fed, nutrient-dense total mixed ration fed at 2.05% of body weight. Following each 7-d period, heifers were given access to both types of straw during an additional 2-d preference period; individual intakes were recorded daily. Feeding and lying behavior were recorded during the last 3 d of each treatment period. Ruminal temperature was recorded during the last 3 d of each treatment period using a telemetric acquisition system and rumen boluses. Dry matter intake of both the total mixed ration (6.3 kg/d) and straw (0.36 kg/d) was similar between treatments. Heifers fed LS spent more time feeding (197.7 vs. 175.2 min/d) throughout the day than heifers fed SS due to the increase in time required to consume long particles in the LS (59.8 vs. 34.2 min/d). Daily lying time (974.7 min/d) and time spent standing without eating (278.9 min/d) was similar between treatments. The preference period showed a strong preference ratio for LS rather than SS (preference ratio = 0.83), with heifers consuming 0.43 ± 0.2 kg/d of LS and 0.07 ± 0.1 kg/d of SS (mean ± SD). Heifers maintained similar mean (38.3°C), minimum (35.1°C), and maximum (38.9°C) rumen temperature across treatments. The amount of time that rumen temperature was elevated over 38.6°C, 39.0°C, and 39.4°C was similar between treatments. In conclusion, heifers will consume similar amounts of supplementary long or short straw if provided to them alongside of a limit-fed TMR. Limit-fed heifers do, however, show a clear preference for LS when offered the choice, suggesting that they find LS to be more satisfactory for achieving rumen fill or meeting their behavioral foraging needs. HubMed – eating


Flavor-independent maintenance, extinction, and reinstatement of fat self-administration in mice.

Biol Psychiatry. 2013 May 1; 73(9): 851-9
Tellez LA, Ferreira JG, Medina S, Land BB, Dileone RJ, de Araujo IE

Mounting evidence suggests that overeating may be conceptualized within the same behavioral and neurobiological framework as drug addiction. One potentially important difference between overeating versus drug abuse refers to the sensory stimulation of oral receptors by palatable foods, a feature that may be required for reinforcement during intake. Likewise, postingestive effects and caloric content of food also contribute to reinforcing behavior and might influence the development of compulsive eating behavior. The purpose of the current study was to establish whether intragastric self-administration of fat emulsions, that is, bypassing the oral cavity, recapitulates some of the behavioral and neurobiological hallmarks of psychostimulant self-administration.We used behavioral assays in mice to assess acquisition, maintenance, extinction, and reinstatement of intragastric self-administration of lipid emulsions to determine the extent to which postoral fat self-administration recapitulates psychostimulant self-administration. Striatal dopamine efflux during behavioral tasks was determined by brain microdialysis coupled to chromatographic-electrochemical analyses.We show that in direct analogy to drug self-administration, 1) decreases in fat dose concentration were met with compensatory increases in response rates aimed at maintaining constant hourly caloric intake; 2) rates of responding markedly increased during both extinction and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement; and 3) elevations in striatal dopamine levels observed during maintenance were markedly attenuated during extinction sessions, only to be restored on reinstatement.Our data thus support the contention that stimulation of oral receptors by caloric foods may not be required for the expression of certain addiction-related neurobehavioral markers. HubMed – eating


School food policy at Dutch primary schools: room for improvement? Cross-sectional findings from the INPACT study.

BMC Public Health. 2013 Apr 12; 13(1): 339
van Ansem WJ, Schrijvers CT, Rodenburg G, Schuit AJ, van de Mheen D

BACKGROUND: Schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity, e.g. by providing an environment that stimulates healthy eating habits and by developing a food policy to provide such an environment. The effectiveness of a school food policy is affected by the content of the policy, its implementation and its support by parents, teachers and principals. The aim of this study is to detect opportunities to improve the school food policy and/or implementation at Dutch primary schools. Therefore, this study explores the school food policy and investigates schools’ (teachers and principals) and parents’ opinion on the school food policy. METHODS: Data on the schools’ perspective of the food policy was collected from principals and teachers by means of semi-structured interviews. In total 74 principals and 72 teachers from 83 Dutch primary schools were interviewed. Data on parental perceptions about the school food policy were based on a cross-sectional survey among 1,429 parents from the same schools. RESULTS: Most principals (87.1%) reported that their school had a written food policy; however in most cases the rules were not clearly defined. Most of the principals (87.8%) believed that their school paid sufficient attention to nutrition and health. Teachers and principals felt that parents were primarily responsible to encourage healthy eating habits among children, while 49.8% of the parents believed that it is also a responsibility of the school to foster healthy eating habits among children. Most parents reported that they appreciated the school food policy and comply with the food rules. Parents’ opinion on the enforcement of the school food policy varied: 28.1% believed that the school should enforce the policy more strongly, 32.1% was satisfied, and 39.8% had no opinion on this topic. CONCLUSION: Dutch primary schools could play a more important role in fostering healthy eating habits among children. The school food policy could be improved by clearly formulating food rules, simplifying supervision of the food rules, and defining how to enforce the food rules. In addition, the school food policy will only influence children’s dietary behaviour if both the school and the parents support the policy. HubMed – eating


The inverse agonist of CB1 receptor SR141716 blocks compulsive eating of palatable food.

Addict Biol. 2013 Apr 16;
Dore R, Valenza M, Wang X, Rice KC, Sabino V, Cottone P

Dieting and the increased availability of highly palatable food are considered major contributing factors to the large incidence of eating disorders and obesity. This study was aimed at investigating the role of the cannabinoid (CB) system in a novel animal model of compulsive eating, based on a rapid palatable diet cycling protocol. Male Wistar rats were fed either continuously a regular chow diet (Chow/Chow, control group) or intermittently a regular chow diet for 2 days and a palatable, high-sucrose diet for 1 day (Chow/Palatable). Chow/Palatable rats showed spontaneous and progressively increasing hypophagia and body weight loss when fed the regular chow diet, and excessive food intake and body weight gain when fed the palatable diet. Diet-cycled rats dramatically escalated the intake of the palatable diet during the first hour of renewed access (7.5-fold compared to controls), and after withdrawal, they showed compulsive eating and heightened risk-taking behavior. The inverse agonist of the CB1 receptor, SR141716 reduced the excessive intake of palatable food with higher potency and the body weight with greater efficacy in Chow/Palatable rats, compared to controls. Moreover, SR141716 reduced compulsive eating and risk-taking behavior in Chow/Palatable rats. Finally, consistent with the behavioral and pharmacological observations, withdrawal from the palatable diet decreased the gene expression of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in the ventromedial hypothalamus while increasing that of CB1 receptors in the dorsal striatum in Chow/Palatable rats, compared to controls. These findings will help understand the role of the CB system in compulsive eating. HubMed – eating



Rebecca Clegg, LPC – Television interview on Eating Disorders – Rebecca Clegg, MS, LPC television interview on Eating Disorders. This television segment explores the origins, symptoms, and treatment of Eating Disorders an…