Gross Human Rights Violations and Reparation Under International Law: Approaching Rehabilitation as a Form of Reparation.

Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation.

Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2013; 4:
Sveaass N

The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states’ obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. HubMed – rehab


Recommendations for mobility in children with spinal cord injury.

Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2013; 19(2): 142-51
Calhoun CL, Schottler J, Vogel LC

Mobility is an important aspect of the rehabilitation of children with spinal cord injury (SCI), is a necessary component of life, and is critical in a child’s development. Depending upon the individual’s age and degree of neurological impairment, the nature of mobility may vary.The objective of this article is to establish recommendations surrounding the selection of mobility for children with SCI.Extensive literature review and multidisciplinary peer review.Types of mobility including power, manual, upright, and community are discussed, and recommendations are made based on medical necessity, neurological level, ASIA Impairment Scale score, and developmental considerations and challenges.Mobility is critical for proper development to occur in the pediatric population, and it may be challenging to make recommendations for mobility in children with SCI. It is essential for clinicians providing care to children with SCI to address mobility in a comprehensive and longitudinal manner across the children’s environments. HubMed – rehab


Normative blood pressure and heart rate in pediatric spinal cord injury.

Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2013; 19(2): 87-95
Hwang M, Zebracki K, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Vogel LC

Cardiovascular measures in children with spinal cord injury (SCI) may vary depending on the child’s age and physical development in addition to injury-related factors. Developmental changes should be considered when addressing cardiovascular complications in this population.To determine baseline blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) measurements in youth with SCI, and to investigate differences in BP and HR in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and injury-related factors.Retrospective chart review was conducted for youth under 19 years who had been admitted for rehabilitation at 1 of 2 pediatric SCI programs. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures and HR were collected in the morning and afternoon on 3 consecutive days. Mean SBP, DBP, and HR were compared among 4 age groups (0-5 years, 6-12 years, 13-15 years, and 16-18 years) and by gender. Diurnal variations were determined according to level and severity of injury. Associations with BMI and injury-related factors were examined. Charts of 315 youths were reviewed: mean age was 12.3 years, 59% were male, 75% were Caucasian, 62% had complete injury, and 66% had paraplegia.With increasing age, SBP and DBP increased and HR decreased. SBP and DBP were positively correlated with BMI. SBP was higher in males, those with incomplete injury, and those with paraplegia. HR was higher in females. There was no association between cardiovascular measures and injury duration.BP and HR are a function of age, BMI, and completeness and level of injury in youth with SCI. Awareness of baseline measures will allow for more effective management of cardiovascular complications, especially in youth presenting with atypical symptoms. HubMed – rehab


Innovative grassland management systems for environmental and livelihood benefits.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 13;
Kemp DR, Guodong H, Xiangyang H, Michalk DL, Fujiang H, Jianping W, Yingjun Z

Grasslands occupy 40% of the world’s land surface (excluding Antarctica and Greenland) and support diverse groups, from traditional extensive nomadic to intense livestock-production systems. Population pressures mean that many of these grasslands are in a degraded state, particularly in less-productive areas of developing countries, affecting not only productivity but also vital environmental services such as hydrology, biodiversity, and carbon cycles; livestock condition is often poor and household incomes are at or below poverty levels. The challenge is to optimize management practices that result in “win-win” outcomes for grasslands, the environment, and households. A case study is discussed from northwestern China, where it has been possible to reduce animal numbers considerably by using an energy-balance/market-based approach while improving household incomes, providing conditions within which grassland recovery is possible. This bottom-up approach was supported by informing and working with the six layers of government in China to build appropriate policies. Further policy implications are considered. Additional gains in grassland rehabilitation could be fostered through targeted environmental payment schemes. Other aspects of the livestock production system that can be modified are discussed. This work built a strategy that has implications for many other grassland areas around the world where common problems apply. HubMed – rehab