Global Drug Policy Fuels Hepatitis C Epidemic, Report Warns.

Global drug policy fuels hepatitis C epidemic, report warns.

Lancet. 2013 Jun 1; 381(9881): 1891
Clark F

HubMed – drug


Reversible acute kidney injury requiring haemodialysis five days after starting dronedarone in a stable 71-year-old man at risk of cardiovascular polypharmacy.

J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2013 Jun; 43(2): 122-5
Young C, Maruthappu M, Wayne RP, Leaver L

We present a case of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) occurring shortly after the initiation of dronedarone therapy, which we suspect was the result of an adverse drug reaction. The mechanism of AKI cannot be definitively determined. The most probable mechanism however involves dehydration secondary to diarrhoea, and medications causing hypotension, both precipitating AKI, further exacerbated by reduced excretion of medications reducing tissue perfusion. This case adds to the growing number of reports submitted to pharmacovigilance authorities regarding the association between dronedarone and AKI. It serves as a reminder of the risks of cardiovascular polypharmacy likely to be prevalent in patients considered for dronedarone (which causes diarrhoea as a common side-effect). HubMed – drug


A Response to the Opioid Overdose Epidemic: Naloxone Nasal Spray.

Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2013 Feb 1; 3(1): 63-74
Wermeling DP

Opioid overdose morbidity and mortality is recognized to have epidemic proportions. Medical and public health agencies are adopting opioid harm reduction strategies to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with overdose. One strategy developed by emergency medical services and public health agencies is to deliver the opioid antidote naloxone injection intranasally to reverse the effects of opioids. Paramedics have used this route to quickly administer naloxone in a needle-free system and avoiding needle-stick injuries and contracting a blood-born pathogen disease such as hepatitis or human immunodeficiency virus. Public health officials advocate broader lay person access since civilians are likely witnesses or first responders to an opioid overdose in a time-acute setting. The barrier to greater use of naloxone is that a suitable and optimized needlefree drug delivery system is unavailable. The scientific basis for design and study of an intranasal naloxone product is described. Lessons from nasal delivery of opioid analgesics are applied to the consideration of naloxone nasal spray. HubMed – drug


Comparative effectiveness of novel oral anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation: evidence from pair-wise and warfarin-controlled network meta-analyses.

HSR Proc Intensive Care Cardiovasc Anesth. 2013; 5(1): 40-54
Biondi-Zoccai G, Malavasi V, D’Ascenzo F, Abbate A, Agostoni P, Lotrionte M, Castagno D, Van Tassell B, Casali E, Marietta M, Modena MG, Ellenbogen KA, Frati G

Novel oral anticoagulants have been tested against warfarin for atrial fibrillation, yet no direct comparison is available. We thus aimed to perform pair-wise (direct) and warfarin-adjusted network (i.e. indirect) meta-analyses of novel oral anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation.Databases were searched for randomized warfarin-controlled trials of novel anticoagulants for non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The primary end-point was long-term stroke/systemic embolism. Odds ratios (95% intervals) were computed with RevMan and WinBUGS.Seven trials (52701 patients) were included, focusing on apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban. Pair-wise meta-analysis showed that after a weighted average of 23 months these novel anticoagulants lead to significant reductions in the risk of stroke/systemic embolism (odds ratio=0.81 [0.71-0.92], I2=23%) and all cause death (odds ratio=0.88 [0.82-0.95], I2=0%) in comparison to warfarin. Network meta-analysis showed that apixaban and dabigatran proved similarly superior to warfarin in preventing stroke/systemic embolism (odds ratio=0.78 [0.62-0.96] for apixaban vs warfarin; odds ratio=0.66 [0.52-0.84] for high-dose dabigatran vs warfarin; odds ratio for apixaban vs high-dose dabigatran=1.17 [0.85-1.63]), but apixaban was associated with fewer major bleedings (odds ratio=0.73 [0.57-0.93]) and drug discontinuations (odds ratio=0.64 [0.52-0.78]) than dabigatran. Rivaroxaban did not reduce stroke/systemic embolism (odds ratio=0.87 [0.71-1.07]) or major bleedings in comparison to warfarin (odds ratio=0.87 [0.71-1.07]) and was associated with more major bleedings in comparison to apixaban (odds ratio=1.52 [1.19-1.92]). Data for edoxaban were inconclusive.Novel oral anticoagulants appear as a very promising treatment option for atrial fibrillation. HubMed – drug