Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies a Potent Locus Associated With Human Opioid Sensitivity.

Genome-wide association study identifies a potent locus associated with human opioid sensitivity.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Mol Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 27;
Nishizawa D, Fukuda K, Kasai S, Hasegawa J, Aoki Y, Nishi A, Saita N, Koukita Y, Nagashima M, Katoh R, Satoh Y, Tagami M, Higuchi S, Ujike H, Ozaki N, Inada T, Iwata N, Sora I, Iyo M, Kondo N, Won MJ, Naruse N, Uehara-Aoyama K, Itokawa M, Koga M, Arinami T, Kaneko Y, Hayashida M, Ikeda K

Opioids, such as morphine and fentanyl, are widely used as effective analgesics for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. In addition, the opioid system has a key role in the rewarding effects of morphine, ethanol, cocaine and various other drugs. Although opioid sensitivity is well known to vary widely among individual subjects, several candidate genetic polymorphisms reported so far are not sufficient for fully understanding the wide range of interindividual differences in human opioid sensitivity. By conducting a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) in healthy subjects, we found that genetic polymorphisms within a linkage disequilibrium block that spans 2q33.3-2q34 were strongly associated with the requirements for postoperative opioid analgesics after painful cosmetic surgery. The C allele of the best candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2952768, was associated with more analgesic requirements, and consistent results were obtained in patients who underwent abdominal surgery. In addition, carriers of the C allele in this SNP exhibited less vulnerability to severe drug dependence in patients with methamphetamine dependence, alcohol dependence, and eating disorders and a lower ‘Reward Dependence’ score on a personality questionnaire in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the C/C genotype of this SNP was significantly associated with the elevated expression of a neighboring gene, CREB1. These results show that SNPs in this locus are the most potent genetic factors associated with human opioid sensitivity known to date, affecting both the efficacy of opioid analgesics and liability to severe substance dependence. Our findings provide valuable information for the personalized treatment of pain and drug dependence.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 27 November 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.164.
HubMed – eating


Healthcare professionals’ and mothers’ knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, Baby-Led Weaning: a content analysis study.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

BMJ Open. 2012; 2(6):
Cameron SL, Heath AL, Taylor RW

Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative approach for introducing complementary foods to infants that emphasises infant self-feeding rather than adult spoon-feeding. Here we examined healthcare professionals’ and mothers’ knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, BLW.Healthcare professionals (n=31) and mothers who had used BLW (n=20) completed a semistructured interview using one of two tailored interview schedules examining their knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, BLW. Interview notes and transcripts were analysed using content analysis to identify subcategories and extract illustrative quotes.Healthcare professionals had limited direct experience with BLW and the main concerns raised were the potential for increased risk of choking, iron deficiency and inadequate energy intake. Although they suggested a number of potential benefits of BLW (greater opportunity for shared family meal times, fewer mealtime battles, healthier eating behaviours, greater convenience and possible developmental advantages) most felt reluctant to recommend BLW because of their concern about the potential increased risk of choking. In contrast, mothers who had used this style of feeding reported no major concerns with BLW. They considered BLW to be a healthier, more convenient and less stressful way to introduce complementary foods to their infant and recommended this feeding approach to other mothers. Although mothers did not report being concerned about choking, 30% reported at least one choking episode-most commonly with raw apple.Given the lack of research on BLW, further work is needed to determine whether the concerns expressed by healthcare professionals and potential benefits outlined by mothers are valid. The current study suggests that there is a mismatch between healthcare professionals’ and mothers’ knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences, with BLW.
HubMed – eating


Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-income Preschool Families.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Nutr Educ Behav. 2012 Nov 22;
Sparks MA, Radnitz CL

OBJECTIVE: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. METHODS: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%). Parents completed self-report measures, and researchers collected anthropometric data. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis indicated a restriction-disinhibition interaction; high restriction/high disinhibition predicted higher BMI, and high restriction/low disinhibition predicted lower BMI. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Although limited by the observational, cross-sectional design, results indicate that parent and child behaviors interact to produce maladaptive weight outcomes, and practitioners should consider both when counseling families.
HubMed – eating


Planning and Development of the Better Bites Program: A Pricing Manipulation Strategy to Improve Healthy Eating in a Hospital Cafeteria.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Health Promot Pract. 2012 Nov 26;
Liebert ML, Patsch AJ, Smith JH, Behrens TK, Charles T, Bailey TR

The Better Bites program, a hospital cafeteria nutrition intervention strategy, was developed by combining evidence-based practices with hospital-specific formative research, including key informant interviews, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants, hospital employee surveys, and nutrition services staff surveys. The primary program components are pricing manipulation and marketing to promote delicious, affordable, and healthy foods to hospital employees and other cafeteria patrons. The pricing manipulation component includes decreasing the price of the healthy items and increasing the price of the unhealthy items using a 35% price differential. Point-of-purchase marketing highlights taste, cost, and health benefits of the healthy items. The program aims to increase purchases of healthy foods and decrease purchases of unhealthy foods, while maintaining revenue neutrality. This article addresses the formative research, planning, and development that informed the Better Bites program.
HubMed – eating



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